PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID Potri.003G169800.1
Common NamePOPTR_0003s16840g, POPTR_0003s16870g
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; fabids; Malpighiales; Salicaceae; Saliceae; Populus
Family M-type_MADS
Protein Properties Length: 86aa    MW: 9749.6 Da    PI: 10.474
Description M-type_MADS family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
Potri.003G169800.1genomeJGIView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
              SRF-TF  1 krienksnrqvtfskRrngilKKAeELSvLCdaevaviifsstgklyeyss 51
                        krienks rqvtfskRrng++KKA ELSvLCd++va+++fss +klye+ss
                        79***********************************************96 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
SuperFamilySSF554554.84E-29161IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
SMARTSM004324.7E-38160IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PROSITE profilePS5006630.796161IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
CDDcd002651.84E-34259No hitNo description
PROSITE patternPS003500357IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004042.8E-28323IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PfamPF003191.2E-271057IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004042.8E-282338IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004042.8E-283859IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0046983Molecular Functionprotein dimerization activity
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 86 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
6byy_A4e-22183185MEF2 CHIMERA
6byy_B4e-22183185MEF2 CHIMERA
6byy_C4e-22183185MEF2 CHIMERA
6byy_D4e-22183185MEF2 CHIMERA
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Found in shoots of non-flowering plants grown under long-day conditions at days 4 to 15, and in shoots of plants grown under short-day conditions at days 4 to 11 after germination. Expressed in embryos from the early globular stage. FLC is not imprinted and both parental alleles contribute equally to expression in embryos. Expression is repressed during gametogenesis, and is then reactivated after fertilization in embryos. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19121105}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: High expression in the vegetative apex and in root tissue and lower expression in leaves and stems. Not detected in young tissues of the inflorescence. Before fertilization, expressed in ovules, but not in pollen or stamens, of non-vernalized plants. After vernalization, not detected in ovules. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19121105}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtPutative transcription factor that seems to play a central role in the regulation of flowering time in the late-flowering phenotype by interacting with 'FRIGIDA', the autonomous and the vernalization flowering pathways. Inhibits flowering by repressing 'SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1'. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10716723, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11283346, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19121105}.
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Epigenetically down-regulated by vernalization. Vernalization repression is initiated by VIN3. Repressed by silencing mediated by polycomb group (PcG) protein complex containing EMF1 and EMF2. Up-regulated by HUA2. Down-regulated by VOZ1 and/or VOZ2. Down-regulated by RBG7. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:14712276, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15659097, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18573194, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19783648, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22904146}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqXP_024452886.12e-37MADS-box protein FLOWERING LOCUS C
SwissprotQ9S7Q71e-26FLC_ARATH; MADS-box protein FLOWERING LOCUS C
TrEMBLA0A3N7EWE57e-37A0A3N7EWE5_POPTR; Uncharacterized protein
STRINGPOPTR_0003s16840.16e-54(Populus trichocarpa)
STRINGPOPTR_0003s16870.16e-54(Populus trichocarpa)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP1617761
Best hit in Arabidopsis thaliana ? help Back to Top
Hit ID E-value Description
AT5G10140.44e-29MIKC_MADS family protein
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Schmitz RJ,Amasino RM
    Vernalization: a model for investigating epigenetics and eukaryotic gene regulation in plants.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2007 May-Jun. 1769(5-6): p. 269-75
  2. Xu Y,Gan ES,Ito T
    The AT-hook/PPC domain protein TEK negatively regulates floral repressors including MAF4 and MAF5.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2014.
  3. Xu Y,Gan ES,He Y,Ito T
    Flowering and genome integrity control by a nuclear matrix protein in Arabidopsis.
    Nucleus, 2013 Jul-Aug. 4(4): p. 274-6
  4. Lee J,Amasino RM
    Two FLX family members are non-redundantly required to establish the vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis.
    Nat Commun, 2013. 4: p. 2186
  5. Ding L,Kim SY,Michaels SD
    FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR family proteins regulate FLOWERING LOCUS C expression in both winter-annual and rapid-cycling Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2013. 163(1): p. 243-52
  6. Ruelens P, et al.
    FLOWERING LOCUS C in monocots and the tandem origin of angiosperm-specific MADS-box genes.
    Nat Commun, 2013. 4: p. 2280
  7. Heidari B,Nemie-Feyissa D,Kangasjärvi S,Lillo C
    Antagonistic regulation of flowering time through distinct regulatory subunits of protein phosphatase 2A.
    PLoS ONE, 2013. 8(7): p. e67987
  8. Rosa S, et al.
    Physical clustering of FLC alleles during Polycomb-mediated epigenetic silencing in vernalization.
    Genes Dev., 2013. 27(17): p. 1845-50
  9. Eickelberg GJ,Fisher AJ
    Environmental regulation of plant gene expression: an RT-qPCR laboratory project for an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry or molecular biology course.
    Biochem Mol Biol Educ, 2013 Sep-Oct. 41(5): p. 325-33
  10. Xiao D, et al.
    The Brassica rapa FLC homologue FLC2 is a key regulator of flowering time, identified through transcriptional co-expression networks.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2013. 64(14): p. 4503-16
  11. Shafiq S,Berr A,Shen WH
    Combinatorial functions of diverse histone methylations in Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time regulation.
    New Phytol., 2014. 201(1): p. 312-22
  12. Rataj K,Simpson GG
    Message ends: RNA 3' processing and flowering time control.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2014. 65(2): p. 353-63
  13. Steinbach Y,Hennig L
    Arabidopsis MSI1 functions in photoperiodic flowering time control.
    Front Plant Sci, 2014. 5: p. 77
  14. Jones AL,Sung S
    Mechanisms underlying epigenetic regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Integr. Comp. Biol., 2014. 54(1): p. 61-7
  15. Müller-Xing R,Clarenz O,Pokorny L,Goodrich J,Schubert D
    Polycomb-Group Proteins and FLOWERING LOCUS T Maintain Commitment to Flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell, 2014. 26(6): p. 2457-2471
  16. Castaings L, et al.
    Evolutionary conservation of cold-induced antisense RNAs of FLOWERING LOCUS C in Arabidopsis thaliana perennial relatives.
    Nat Commun, 2014. 5: p. 4457
  17. Dittmar EL,Oakley CG,Ågren J,Schemske DW
    Flowering time QTL in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana and implications for their adaptive value.
    Mol. Ecol., 2014. 23(17): p. 4291-303
  18. Jali SS, et al.
    A plant-specific HUA2-LIKE (HULK) gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana is essential for development.
    Plant J., 2014. 80(2): p. 242-54
  19. Schmalenbach I,Zhang L,Ryngajllo M,Jiménez-Gómez JM
    Functional analysis of the Landsberg erecta allele of FRIGIDA.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2014. 14: p. 218
  20. Crevillén P, et al.
    Epigenetic reprogramming that prevents transgenerational inheritance of the vernalized state.
    Nature, 2014. 515(7528): p. 587-90
  21. Suter L,Rüegg M,Zemp N,Hennig L,Widmer A
    Gene regulatory variation mediates flowering responses to vernalization along an altitudinal gradient in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2014. 166(4): p. 1928-42
  22. Yasui Y,Kohchi T
    VASCULAR PLANT ONE-ZINC FINGER1 and VOZ2 repress the FLOWERING LOCUS C clade members to control flowering time in Arabidopsis.
    Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2014. 78(11): p. 1850-5
  23. Gillmor CS,Silva-Ortega CO,Willmann MR,Buendía-Monreal M,Poethig RS
    The Arabidopsis Mediator CDK8 module genes CCT (MED12) and GCT (MED13) are global regulators of developmental phase transitions.
    Development, 2014. 141(23): p. 4580-9
  24. Lee J,Yun JY,Zhao W,Shen WH,Amasino RM
    A methyltransferase required for proper timing of the vernalization response in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2015. 112(7): p. 2269-74
  25. Bouché F,Detry N,Périlleux C
    Heat can erase epigenetic marks of vernalization in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2015. 10(3): p. e990799
  26. Zhang C, et al.
    The chromatin-remodeling factor AtINO80 plays crucial roles in genome stability maintenance and in plant development.
    Plant J., 2015. 82(4): p. 655-68
  27. Wells CE,Vendramin E,Jimenez Tarodo S,Verde I,Bielenberg DG
    A genome-wide analysis of MADS-box genes in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].
    BMC Plant Biol., 2015. 15: p. 41
  28. Luo M, et al.
    Regulation of flowering time by the histone deacetylase HDA5 in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2015. 82(6): p. 925-36
  29. Müller-Xing R,Schubert D,Goodrich J
    Non-inductive conditions expose the cryptic bract of flower phytomeres in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2015. 10(4): p. e1010868
  30. Berry S,Dean C
    Environmental perception and epigenetic memory: mechanistic insight through FLC.
    Plant J., 2015. 83(1): p. 133-48
  31. Berry S,Hartley M,Olsson TS,Dean C,Howard M
    Local chromatin environment of a Polycomb target gene instructs its own epigenetic inheritance.
    Elife, 2016.
  32. Kang MY, et al.
    Negative regulatory roles of DE-ETIOLATED1 in flowering time in Arabidopsis.
    Sci Rep, 2015. 5: p. 9728
  33. Lyons R, et al.
    Investigating the Association between Flowering Time and Defense in the Arabidopsis thaliana-Fusarium oxysporum Interaction.
    PLoS ONE, 2015. 10(6): p. e0127699
  34. Kataya AR,Heidari B,Lillo C
    Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunits affecting plant innate immunity, energy metabolism, and flowering time--joint functions among B'η subfamily members.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2015. 10(5): p. e1026024
  35. Zhang Y, et al.
    Integrative genome-wide analysis reveals HLP1, a novel RNA-binding protein, regulates plant flowering by targeting alternative polyadenylation.
    Cell Res., 2015. 25(7): p. 864-76
  36. Hepworth J,Dean C
    Flowering Locus C's Lessons: Conserved Chromatin Switches Underpinning Developmental Timing and Adaptation.
    Plant Physiol., 2015. 168(4): p. 1237-45
  37. Méndez-Vigo B, et al.
    Environmental and genetic interactions reveal FLOWERING LOCUS C as a modulator of the natural variation for the plasticity of flowering in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell Environ., 2016. 39(2): p. 282-94
  38. Duncan S, et al.
    Seasonal shift in timing of vernalization as an adaptation to extreme winter.
    Elife, 2016.
  39. Lee JH,Jung JH,Park CM
    INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION 1 integrates cold signals into FLOWERING LOCUS C-mediated flowering pathways in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2015. 84(1): p. 29-40
  40. Cao Y,Wen L,Wang Z,Ma L
    SKIP Interacts with the Paf1 Complex to Regulate Flowering via the Activation of FLC Transcription in Arabidopsis.
    Mol Plant, 2015. 8(12): p. 1816-9
  41. Xiao J, et al.
    JACALIN-LECTIN LIKE1 Regulates the Nuclear Accumulation of GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN7, Influencing the RNA Processing of FLOWERING LOCUS C Antisense Transcripts and Flowering Time in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2015. 169(3): p. 2102-17
  42. Lee JH,Park CM
    Integration of photoperiod and cold temperature signals into flowering genetic pathways in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2015. 10(11): p. e1089373
  43. Finnegan EJ
    Time-dependent stabilization of the +1 nucleosome is an early step in the transition to stable cold-induced repression of FLC.
    Plant J., 2015. 84(5): p. 875-85
  44. Shu K, et al.
    ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 4 negatively regulates flowering through directly promoting Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C transcription.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2016. 67(1): p. 195-205
  45. Kang MY,Kwon HY,Kim NY,Sakuraba Y,Paek NC
    CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 10 (COP10) Contributes to Floral Repression under Non-Inductive Short Days in Arabidopsis.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2015. 16(11): p. 26493-505
  46. Li M, et al.
    DELLA proteins interact with FLC to repress flowering transition.
    J Integr Plant Biol, 2016. 58(7): p. 642-55
  47. Franks SJ, et al.
    Variation in the flowering time orthologs BrFLC and BrSOC1 in a natural population of Brassica rapa.
    PeerJ, 2015. 3: p. e1339
  48. Sanchez-Bermejo E,Balasubramanian S
    Natural variation involving deletion alleles of FRIGIDA modulate temperature-sensitive flowering responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Environ., 2016. 39(6): p. 1353-65
  49. Burghardt LT, et al.
    Fluctuating, warm temperatures decrease the effect of a key floral repressor on flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    New Phytol., 2016. 210(2): p. 564-76
  50. Tang Q, et al.
    The mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase PHS1 regulates flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Planta, 2016. 243(4): p. 909-23
  51. Wu Z, et al.
    RNA Binding Proteins RZ-1B and RZ-1C Play Critical Roles in Regulating Pre-mRNA Splicing and Gene Expression during Development in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2016. 28(1): p. 55-73
  52. Liu B, et al.
    Interplay of the histone methyltransferases SDG8 and SDG26 in the regulation of transcription and plant flowering and development.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2016. 1859(4): p. 581-90
  53. Shi H,Wei Y,Wang Q,Reiter RJ,He C
    Melatonin mediates the stabilization of DELLA proteins to repress the floral transition in Arabidopsis.
    J. Pineal Res., 2016. 60(3): p. 373-9
  54. Saleh A,Alvarez-Venegas R,Liu N,Avramova Z
    Corrigendum to "Dynamic and stable histone H3 methylation patterns at the Arabidopsis FLC and AP1 loci" [Gene. 2008 Oct. 15; 423(1):43-47].
    Gene, 2016. 585(2): p. 266-7
  55. Mahrez W, et al.
    BRR2a Affects Flowering Time via FLC Splicing.
    PLoS Genet., 2016. 12(4): p. e1005924
  56. Kwak JS,Son GH,Kim SI,Song JT,Seo HS
    Arabidopsis HIGH PLOIDY2 Sumoylates and Stabilizes Flowering Locus C through Its E3 Ligase Activity.
    Front Plant Sci, 2016. 7: p. 530
  57. Nishio H, et al.
    From the laboratory to the field: assaying histone methylation at FLOWERING LOCUS C in naturally growing Arabidopsis halleri.
    Genes Genet. Syst., 2016. 91(1): p. 15-26
  58. Li Z, et al.
    Coupling of histone methylation and RNA processing by the nuclear mRNA cap-binding complex.
    Nat Plants, 2016. 2: p. 16015
  59. Yang H,Howard M,Dean C
    Physical coupling of activation and derepression activities to maintain an active transcriptional state at FLC.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016. 113(33): p. 9369-74
  60. Zhang Y,Rataj K,Simpson GG,Tong L
    Crystal Structure of the SPOC Domain of the Arabidopsis Flowering Regulator FPA.
    PLoS ONE, 2016. 11(8): p. e0160694
  61. Feng P, et al.
    Chloroplast retrograde signal regulates flowering.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016. 113(38): p. 10708-13
  62. Park HJ,Kim WY,Pardo JM,Yun DJ
    Molecular Interactions Between Flowering Time and Abiotic Stress Pathways.
    Int Rev Cell Mol Biol, 2016. 327: p. 371-412
  63. Rosa S,Duncan S,Dean C
    Mutually exclusive sense-antisense transcription at FLC facilitates environmentally induced gene repression.
    Nat Commun, 2016. 7: p. 13031
  64. Yuan W, et al.
    A cis cold memory element and a trans epigenome reader mediate Polycomb silencing of FLC by vernalization in Arabidopsis.
    Nat. Genet., 2016. 48(12): p. 1527-1534
  65. Gong X,Shen L,Peng YZ,Gan Y,Yu H
    DNA Topoisomerase Iα Affects the Floral Transition.
    Plant Physiol., 2017. 173(1): p. 642-654
  66. Ågren J,Oakley CG,Lundemo S,Schemske DW
    Adaptive divergence in flowering time among natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: Estimates of selection and QTL mapping.
    Evolution, 2017. 71(3): p. 550-564
  67. Li C,Cui Y
    A DNA element that remembers winter.
    Nat. Genet., 2016. 48(12): p. 1451-1452
  68. Kong X,Luo X,Qu GP,Liu P,Jin JB
    Arabidopsis SUMO protease ASP1 positively regulates flowering time partially through regulating FLC stability .
    J Integr Plant Biol, 2017. 59(1): p. 15-29
  69. Kapolas G, et al.
    APRF1 promotes flowering under long days in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Sci., 2016. 253: p. 141-153
  70. Sharma N, et al.
    A Flowering Locus C Homolog Is a Vernalization-Regulated Repressor in Brachypodium and Is Cold Regulated in Wheat.
    Plant Physiol., 2017. 173(2): p. 1301-1315
  71. Huang B,Qian P,Gao N,Shen J,Hou S
    Fackel interacts with gibberellic acid signaling and vernalization to mediate flowering in Arabidopsis.
    Planta, 2017. 245(5): p. 939-950
  72. Kim DH,Sung S
    Vernalization-Triggered Intragenic Chromatin Loop Formation by Long Noncoding RNAs.
    Dev. Cell, 2017. 40(3): p. 302-312.e4
  73. Zhu A,Greaves IK,Dennis ES,Peacock WJ
    Genome-wide analyses of four major histone modifications in Arabidopsis hybrids at the germinating seed stage.
    BMC Genomics, 2017. 18(1): p. 137
  74. Lu C, et al.
    Phosphorylation of SPT5 by CDKD;2 Is Required for VIP5 Recruitment and Normal Flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell, 2017. 29(2): p. 277-291
  75. Denis E, et al.
    WOX14 promotes bioactive gibberellin synthesis and vascular cell differentiation in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2017. 90(3): p. 560-572
  76. Nasim Z,Fahim M,Ahn JH
    Possible Role of MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING 3 and B-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN 19 in Flowering Time Regulation of Arabidopsis Mutants with Defects in Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay.
    Front Plant Sci, 2017. 8: p. 191
  77. Kiefer C, et al.
    Divergence of annual and perennial species in the Brassicaceae and the contribution of cis-acting variation at FLC orthologues.
    Mol. Ecol., 2017. 26(13): p. 3437-3457
  78. Yan Q,Xia X,Sun Z,Fang Y
    Depletion of Arabidopsis SC35 and SC35-like serine/arginine-rich proteins affects the transcription and splicing of a subset of genes.
    PLoS Genet., 2017. 13(3): p. e1006663
  79. Kasulin L, et al.
    A single haplotype hyposensitive to light and requiring strong vernalization dominates Arabidopsis thaliana populations in Patagonia, Argentina.
    Mol. Ecol., 2017. 26(13): p. 3389-3404
  80. Auge GA,Blair LK,Neville H,Donohue K
    Maternal vernalization and vernalization-pathway genes influence progeny seed germination.
    New Phytol., 2017. 216(2): p. 388-400
  81. Zhou Y,Romero-Campero FJ,Gómez-Zambrano Á,Turck F,Calonje M
    H2A monoubiquitination in Arabidopsis thaliana is generally independent of LHP1 and PRC2 activity.
    Genome Biol., 2017. 18(1): p. 69
  82. Kim DH,Sung S
    Accelerated vernalization response by an altered PHD-finger protein in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2017. 12(5): p. e1308619
  83. Nakamura M,Hennig L
    Inheritance of vernalization memory at FLOWERING LOCUS C during plant regeneration.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2017. 68(11): p. 2813-2819
  84. He R, et al.
    A photo-responsive F-box protein FOF2 regulates floral initiation by promoting FLC expression in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2017. 91(5): p. 788-801
  85. Ietswaart R,Rosa S,Wu Z,Dean C,Howard M
    Cell-Size-Dependent Transcription of FLC and Its Antisense Long Non-coding RNA COOLAIR Explain Cell-to-Cell Expression Variation.
    Cell Syst, 2017. 4(6): p. 622-635.e9
  86. Kim D,Abdelaziz ME,Ntui VO,Guo X,Al-Babili S
    Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2017. 490(4): p. 1162-1167
  87. Whittaker C,Dean C
    The FLC Locus: A Platform for Discoveries in Epigenetics and Adaptation.
    Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol., 2017. 33: p. 555-575
  88. Kim DH,Xi Y,Sung S
    Modular function of long noncoding RNA, COLDAIR, in the vernalization response.
    PLoS Genet., 2017. 13(7): p. e1006939
  89. Yang H, et al.
    Distinct phases of Polycomb silencing to hold epigenetic memory of cold in Arabidopsis.
    Science, 2017. 357(6356): p. 1142-1145
  90. Cheng JZ,Zhou YP,Lv TX,Xie CP,Tian CE
    Research progress on the autonomous flowering time pathway in Arabidopsis.
    Physiol Mol Biol Plants, 2017. 23(3): p. 477-485
  91. Cui Z, et al.
    SKIP controls flowering time via the alternative splicing of SEF pre-mRNA in Arabidopsis.
    BMC Biol., 2017. 15(1): p. 80
  92. Tao Z, et al.
    Embryonic epigenetic reprogramming by a pioneer transcription factor in plants.
    Nature, 2017. 551(7678): p. 124-128
  93. Yan Z,Jia J,Yan X,Shi H,Han Y
    Arabidopsis KHZ1 and KHZ2, two novel non-tandem CCCH zinc-finger and K-homolog domain proteins, have redundant roles in the regulation of flowering and senescence.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2017. 95(6): p. 549-565
  94. Eom H, et al.
    TAF15b, involved in the autonomous pathway for flowering, represses transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS C.
    Plant J., 2018. 93(1): p. 79-91
  95. Sang S,Chen Y,Yang Q,Wang P
    Arabidopsis inositol polyphosphate multikinase delays flowering time through mediating transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS C.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2017. 68(21-22): p. 5787-5800
  96. Chen Q, et al.
    Functional FRIGIDA allele enhances drought tolerance by regulating the P5CS1 pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2018. 495(1): p. 1102-1107
  97. Mateos JL, et al.
    Divergence of regulatory networks governed by the orthologous transcription factors FLC and PEP1 in Brassicaceae species.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2017. 114(51): p. E11037-E11046
  98. Zhou JX, et al.
    Arabidopsis PWWP domain proteins mediate H3K27 trimethylation on FLC and regulate flowering time.
    J Integr Plant Biol, 2018. 60(5): p. 362-368
  99. Hepworth J, et al.
    Absence of warmth permits epigenetic memory of winter in Arabidopsis.
    Nat Commun, 2018. 9(1): p. 639
  100. Dotto M,Gómez MS,Soto MS,Casati P
    UV-B radiation delays flowering time through changes in the PRC2 complex activity and miR156 levels in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Environ., 2018. 41(6): p. 1394-1406
  101. Kumar S,Choudhary P,Gupta M,Nath U
    VASCULAR PLANT ONE-ZINC FINGER1 (VOZ1) and VOZ2 Interact with CONSTANS and Promote Photoperiodic Flowering Transition.
    Plant Physiol., 2018. 176(4): p. 2917-2930
  102. Wu B, et al.
    Structural insight into the role of VAL1 B3 domain for targeting to FLC locus in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2018. 501(2): p. 415-422
  103. Chen M,Penfield S
    Feedback regulation of COOLAIR expression controls seed dormancy and flowering time.
    Science, 2018. 360(6392): p. 1014-1017
  104. Li Z,Ou Y,Zhang Z,Li J,He Y
    Brassinosteroid Signaling Recruits Histone 3 Lysine-27 Demethylation Activity to FLOWERING LOCUS C Chromatin to Inhibit the Floral Transition in Arabidopsis.
    Mol Plant, 2018. 11(9): p. 1135-1146
  105. Richter R, et al.
    Floral regulators FLC and SOC1 directly regulate expression of the B3-type transcription factor TARGET OF FLC AND SVP 1 at the Arabidopsis shoot apex via antagonistic chromatin modifications.
    PLoS Genet., 2019. 15(4): p. e1008065