PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID XP_009102302.1
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Brassiceae; Brassica
Family WOX
Protein Properties Length: 302aa    MW: 34278.6 Da    PI: 7.3822
Description WOX family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
XP_009102302.1genomeNCBIView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
        Homeobox  3 kRttftkeqleeLeelFek..nrypsaeereeLAkkl....gLterqVkvWFqNrRakekk 57
                    +R+t+t+eq+++L++l+++   r p+a+++++++++l    +++ ++V++WFqN++a+e++
                    8*****************8678*************************************97 PP

  Wus_type_Homeobox  2 artRWtPtpeQikiLeelyk.sGlrtPnkeeiqritaeLeeyGkiedkNVfyWFQNrkaRerqkq 65
                       ++tRWtPt+eQi+iL++ly+ +G+r+P++++iq+i+a+L+ yGkie+kNVfyWFQN+kaRerqk+
                       789***************9779*****************************************96 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PROSITE profilePS5007110.4462793IPR001356Homeobox domain
SMARTSM003892.9E-72997IPR001356Homeobox domain
CDDcd000864.90E-83294No hitNo description
PfamPF000465.1E-173292IPR001356Homeobox domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0010492Biological Processmaintenance of shoot apical meristem identity
GO:0080166Biological Processstomium development
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 302 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Expressed from 16 cell embryo stage, long before shoot meristem is evident, and gradually become restricted to the center of shoot meristem primordium. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:9865698}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: In the active shoot meristem, it is specifically expressed in a small cell group underneath the presume position of stem cells. Also expressed in the floral meristem. Expressed in the nucellus of ovule primordia. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12000795, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9865698}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtTranscription factor that plays a central role during early embryogenesis, oogenesis and flowering, probably by regulating expression of specific genes. Required to specify stem cell identity in meristems, such as shoot apical meristem (SAM). May induce shoot stem cells activity in order to maintain the stem cell identity. Involved in the developmental root meristem. In shoot apices, it is sufficient to induce the expression of CLV3, a putative ligand of the CLV signaling pathway. Also required to sustain organogenesis in the floral meristem by contributing to the expression of its own repressor, the AGAMOUS (AG) gene at the end of flower development. Binds directly to the 5'-TTAAT[GC][GC]-3' DNA sequence in the regulatory sequence of AG and activates its expression directly. Regulates one important step in ovule development to induce integument formation from the underlying chalazal domain. Participates in the promotion of vegetative to embryonic transition. Required to repress LEC1 expression. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10761929, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11440721, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11440722, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12000682, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12000795, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12068101, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12070094, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12070095, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15004006, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9865698}.
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
MP00265DAPTransfer from AT2G17950Download
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Repressed by the CLV (CLV1, CLV2 and CLV3) proteins, possibly to rapidly down-regulate WUS expression in apical daughter cells after cell divisions, suggesting the existence of a feedback loop. Repressed by AG at the end of floral development. Down-regulated by ULT1, probably to establish floral meristem determinacy. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10761929, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11440721, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11440722, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15342527}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAC2324671e-124AC232467.1 Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis cultivar Inbred line 'Chiifu' clone KBrB024N11, complete sequence.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqXP_009102302.10.0PREDICTED: protein WUSCHEL-like
SwissprotQ9SB921e-135WUS_ARATH; Protein WUSCHEL
TrEMBLM4FFM00.0M4FFM0_BRARP; Uncharacterized protein
STRINGBra039894.1-P0.0(Brassica rapa)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Best hit in Arabidopsis thaliana ? help Back to Top
Hit ID E-value Description
AT2G17950.11e-137WOX family protein
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Yadav RK, et al.
    Plant stem cell maintenance involves direct transcriptional repression of differentiation program.
    Mol. Syst. Biol., 2013. 9: p. 654
  2. Liu C, et al.
    Phosphatidylserine synthase 1 is required for inflorescence meristem and organ development in Arabidopsis.
    J Integr Plant Biol, 2013. 55(8): p. 682-95
  3. Chu H, et al.
    A CLE-WOX signalling module regulates root meristem maintenance and vascular tissue development in rice.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2013. 64(17): p. 5359-69
  4. Wong CE,Singh MB,Bhalla PL
    Spatial expression of CLAVATA3 in the shoot apical meristem suggests it is not a stem cell marker in soybean.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2013. 64(18): p. 5641-9
  5. Yue M, et al.
    Histone H4R3 methylation catalyzed by SKB1/PRMT5 is required for maintaining shoot apical meristem.
    PLoS ONE, 2013. 8(12): p. e83258
  6. Zhou F,Roy B,Dunlap JR,Enganti R,von Arnim AG
    Translational control of Arabidopsis meristem stability and organogenesis by the eukaryotic translation factor eIF3h.
    PLoS ONE, 2014. 9(4): p. e95396
  7. Scofield S,Dewitte W,Murray JA
    STM sustains stem cell function in the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem and controls KNOX gene expression independently of the transcriptional repressor AS1.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2018.
  8. Wynn AN,Seaman AA,Jones AL,Franks RG
    Novel functional roles for PERIANTHIA and SEUSS during floral organ identity specification, floral meristem termination, and gynoecial development.
    Front Plant Sci, 2014. 5: p. 130
  9. Wu G,Rossidivito G,Hu T,Berlyand Y,Poethig RS
    Traffic lines: new tools for genetic analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Genetics, 2015. 200(1): p. 35-45
  10. Shinohara H,Matsubayashi Y
    Reevaluation of the CLV3-receptor interaction in the shoot apical meristem: dissection of the CLV3 signaling pathway from a direct ligand-binding point of view.
    Plant J., 2015. 82(2): p. 328-36
  11. Nimchuk ZL,Zhou Y,Tarr PT,Peterson BA,Meyerowitz EM
    Plant stem cell maintenance by transcriptional cross-regulation of related receptor kinases.
    Development, 2015. 142(6): p. 1043-9
  12. Cao X,He Z,Guo L,Liu X
    Epigenetic Mechanisms Are Critical for the Regulation of WUSCHEL Expression in Floral Meristems.
    Plant Physiol., 2015. 168(4): p. 1189-96
  13. Tanaka W, et al.
    Axillary Meristem Formation in Rice Requires the WUSCHEL Ortholog TILLERS ABSENT1.
    Plant Cell, 2015. 27(4): p. 1173-84
  14. Landau U,Asis L,Eshed Williams L
    The ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP Pathways Display Synergistic Interactions in Regulating Floral Meristem Activities.
    PLoS ONE, 2015. 10(5): p. e0125408
  15. Liang Z,Brown RC,Fletcher JC,Opsahl-Sorteberg HG
    Calpain-Mediated Positional Information Directs Cell Wall Orientation to Sustain Plant Stem Cell Activity, Growth and Development.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2015. 56(9): p. 1855-66
  16. Shemer O,Landau U,Candela H,Zemach A,Eshed Williams L
    Competency for shoot regeneration from Arabidopsis root explants is regulated by DNA methylation.
    Plant Sci., 2015. 238: p. 251-61
  17. Han Y,Jiao Y
    APETALA1 establishes determinate floral meristem through regulating cytokinins homeostasis in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2015. 10(11): p. e989039
  18. Poulios S,Vlachonasios KE
    Synergistic action of histone acetyltransferase GCN5 and receptor CLAVATA1 negatively affects ethylene responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2016. 67(3): p. 905-18
  19. Kong D,Hao Y,Cui H
    The WUSCHEL Related Homeobox Protein WOX7 Regulates the Sugar Response of Lateral Root Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Mol Plant, 2016. 9(2): p. 261-270
  20. Yamada T,Sasaki Y,Hashimoto K,Nakajima K,Gasser CS
    CORONA, PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA collaborate with BELL1 to confine WUSCHEL expression to the nucellus in Arabidopsis ovules.
    Development, 2016. 143(3): p. 422-6
  21. Chou H,Zhu Y,Ma Y,Berkowitz GA
    The CLAVATA signaling pathway mediating stem cell fate in shoot meristems requires Ca(2+) as a secondary cytosolic messenger.
    Plant J., 2016. 85(4): p. 494-506
  22. Guzmán-López JA,Abraham-Juárez MJ,Lozano-Sotomayor P,de Folter S,Simpson J
    Arabidopsis thaliana gonidialess A/Zuotin related factors (GlsA/ZRF) are essential for maintenance of meristem integrity.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2016. 91(1-2): p. 37-51
  23. Adibi M,Yoshida S,Weijers D,Fleck C
    Centering the Organizing Center in the Arabidopsis thaliana Shoot Apical Meristem by a Combination of Cytokinin Signaling and Self-Organization.
    PLoS ONE, 2016. 11(2): p. e0147830
  24. Dolzblasz A, et al.
    Stem Cell Regulation by Arabidopsis WOX Genes.
    Mol Plant, 2016. 9(7): p. 1028-39
  25. Lin TF,Saiga S,Abe M,Laux T
    OBE3 and WUS Interaction in Shoot Meristem Stem Cell Regulation.
    PLoS ONE, 2016. 11(5): p. e0155657
  26. Lee DK,Parrott DL,Adhikari E,Fraser N,Sieburth LE
    The Mobile bypass Signal Arrests Shoot Growth by Disrupting Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance, Cytokinin Signaling, and WUS Transcription Factor Expression.
    Plant Physiol., 2016. 171(3): p. 2178-90
  27. Nardmann J,Chandler JW,Werr W
    Stem Cell Fate versus Differentiation: the Missing Link.
    Trends Plant Sci., 2016. 21(9): p. 725-727
  28. Li D, et al.
    FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 activates SEPALLATA2 but inhibits CLAVATA3 to regulate meristem determinacy and maintenance in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016. 113(33): p. 9375-80
  29. Huang Z, et al.
    APETALA2 antagonizes the transcriptional activity of AGAMOUS in regulating floral stem cells in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    New Phytol., 2017. 215(3): p. 1197-1209
  30. Dory M, et al.
    Kinase-Associated Phosphoisoform Assay: a novel candidate-based method to detect specific kinase-substrate phosphorylation interactions in vivo.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2016. 16(1): p. 204
  31. Rodriguez K, et al.
    DNA-dependent homodimerization, sub-cellular partitioning, and protein destabilization control WUSCHEL levels and spatial patterning.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016. 113(41): p. E6307-E6315
  32. Perales M, et al.
    Threshold-dependent transcriptional discrimination underlies stem cell homeostasis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016. 113(41): p. E6298-E6306
  33. Keren I,Citovsky V
    The histone deubiquitinase OTLD1 targets euchromatin to regulate plant growth.
    Sci Signal, 2016. 9(459): p. ra125
  34. Zhang Y,Jiao Y,Jiao H,Zhao H,Zhu YX
    Two-Step Functional Innovation of the Stem-Cell Factors WUS/WOX5 during Plant Evolution.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2017. 34(3): p. 640-653
  35. Zhang Z,Tucker E,Hermann M,Laux T
    A Molecular Framework for the Embryonic Initiation of Shoot Meristem Stem Cells.
    Dev. Cell, 2017. 40(3): p. 264-277.e4
  36. Singh S, et al.
    Sirtinol, a Sir2 protein inhibitor, affects stem cell maintenance and root development in Arabidopsis thaliana by modulating auxin-cytokinin signaling components.
    Sci Rep, 2017. 7: p. 42450
  37. Adibi M,Yoshida S,Weijers D,Fleck C
    Correction: Centering the Organizing Center in the Arabidopsis thaliana Shoot Apical Meristem by a Combination of Cytokinin Signaling and Self-Organization.
    PLoS ONE, 2017. 12(3): p. e0174751
  38. Nimchuk ZL
    CLAVATA1 controls distinct signaling outputs that buffer shoot stem cell proliferation through a two-step transcriptional compensation loop.
    PLoS Genet., 2017. 13(3): p. e1006681
  39. Zhang TQ, et al.
    A Two-Step Model for de Novo Activation of WUSCHEL during Plant Shoot Regeneration.
    Plant Cell, 2017. 29(5): p. 1073-1087
  40. Xin W,Wang Z,Liang Y,Wang Y,Hu Y
    Dynamic expression reveals a two-step patterning of WUS and CLV3 during axillary shoot meristem formation in Arabidopsis.
    J. Plant Physiol., 2017. 214: p. 1-6
  41. Zhao X, et al.
    RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED1 mediates germline entry in Arabidopsis.
    Science, 2017.
  42. Wang J, et al.
    Cytokinin Signaling Activates WUSCHEL Expression during Axillary Meristem Initiation.
    Plant Cell, 2017. 29(6): p. 1373-1387
  43. Meng WJ, et al.
    Type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORs Specify the Shoot Stem Cell Niche by Dual Regulation of WUSCHEL.
    Plant Cell, 2017. 29(6): p. 1357-1372
  44. Zubo YO, et al.
    Cytokinin induces genome-wide binding of the type-B response regulator ARR10 to regulate growth and development in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2017. 114(29): p. E5995-E6004
  45. Dai X, et al.
    ARR12 promotes de novo shoot regeneration in Arabidopsis thaliana via activation of WUSCHEL expression.
    J Integr Plant Biol, 2017. 59(10): p. 747-758
  46. Yang M, et al.
    Genomic architecture of biomass heterosis in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2017. 114(30): p. 8101-8106
  47. Zhang F,May A,Irish VF
    Trends Plant Sci., 2017. 22(10): p. 815-817
  48. Liu H,Zhang H,Dong YX,Hao YJ,Zhang XS
    DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE1-mediated shoot regeneration is regulated by cytokinin-induced cell cycle in Arabidopsis.
    New Phytol., 2018. 217(1): p. 219-232
  49. Huang Y,Cui Y,Hou X,Huang T
    The AtMC4 regulates the stem cell homeostasis in Arabidopsis by catalyzing the cleavage of AtLa1 protein in response to environmental hazards.
    Plant Sci., 2018. 266: p. 64-75
  50. Bollier N, et al.
    At-MINI ZINC FINGER2 and Sl-INHIBITOR OF MERISTEM ACTIVITY, a Conserved Missing Link in the Regulation of Floral Meristem Termination in Arabidopsis and Tomato.
    Plant Cell, 2018. 30(1): p. 83-100
  51. Shin J,Jeong G,Park JY,Kim H,Lee I
    MUN (MERISTEM UNSTRUCTURED), encoding a SPC24 homolog of NDC80 kinetochore complex, affects development through cell division in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2018. 93(6): p. 977-991
  52. Liu J, et al.
    The WOX11-LBD16 Pathway Promotes Pluripotency Acquisition in Callus Cells During De Novo Shoot Regeneration in Tissue Culture.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2018. 59(4): p. 734-743
  53. Landrein B, et al.
    Nitrate modulates stem cell dynamics in Arabidopsis shoot meristems through cytokinins.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2018. 115(6): p. 1382-1387
  54. Balanzà V, et al.
    Genetic control of meristem arrest and life span in Arabidopsis by a FRUITFULL-APETALA2 pathway.
    Nat Commun, 2018. 9(1): p. 565
  55. Snipes SA, et al.
    Cytokinin stabilizes WUSCHEL by acting on the protein domains required for nuclear enrichment and transcription.
    PLoS Genet., 2018. 14(4): p. e1007351
  56. Xie M, et al.
    A B-ARR-mediated cytokinin transcriptional network directs hormone cross-regulation and shoot development.
    Nat Commun, 2018. 9(1): p. 1604