PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT5G67110.3
Common NameALC, BHLH73, EN98, K21H1.7
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family bHLH
Protein Properties Length: 188aa    MW: 20355.8 Da    PI: 6.1096
Description bHLH family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT5G67110.3genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
          HLH  32 kapskKlsKaeiLekAveYIksLq 55 
                  ++ s+K +Ka++L +A+eY+k+Lq
                  56799******************9 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
CDDcd000833.49E-677125No hitNo description
SuperFamilySSF474591.22E-799142IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
Gene3DG3DSA:, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0010047Biological Processfruit dehiscence
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0046983Molecular Functionprotein dimerization activity
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 188 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.288251e-175flower| inflorescence
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT5G67110-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed constitutively in roots, leaves, stems, and flowers. Confined to the valve margins of the silique. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11747817, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12679534}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRencodes a myc/bHLH transcription factor-like protein. Gene product is involved in fruit dehiscence. Mutant siliques fail to dehisce.
UniProtRequired for the dehiscence of fruit, especially for the separation of the valve cells from the replum. Promotes the differentiation of a strip of labile nonlignified cells sandwiched between layers of lignified cells. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11747817}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. Over-expression of ALCATRAZ can partially compensate for a loss of SPATULA function, and over-expression of SPATULA can fully compensate for loss of ALCATRAZ function.
    [PMID: 21801252]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT2G42830 (A), AT3G58780 (A), AT5G02030 (R), AT5G60910 (R)
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
IntActSearch Q9FHA2
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT5G67110
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankBT0289461e-173BT028946.1 Arabidopsis thaliana At5g67110 mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_001078811.11e-136basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) DNA-binding superfamily protein
SwissprotQ9FHA21e-132ALC_ARATH; Transcription factor ALC
TrEMBLQ680B11e-129Q680B1_ARATH; Putative bHLH transcription factor (BHLH073/ALCATRAZ)
STRINGAT5G67110.11e-131(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Rajani S,Sundaresan V
    The Arabidopsis myc/bHLH gene ALCATRAZ enables cell separation in fruit dehiscence.
    Curr. Biol., 2001. 11(24): p. 1914-22
  3. Heim MA, et al.
    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in plants: a genome-wide study of protein structure and functional diversity.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2003. 20(5): p. 735-47
  4. Toledo-Ortiz G,Huq E,Quail PH
    The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(8): p. 1749-70
  5. Robles P,Pelaz S
    Flower and fruit development in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Int. J. Dev. Biol., 2005. 49(5-6): p. 633-43
  6. Ascencio-Ib
    Global analysis of Arabidopsis gene expression uncovers a complex array of changes impacting pathogen response and cell cycle during geminivirus infection.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 148(1): p. 436-54
  7. Mitsuda N,Ohme-Takagi M
    NAC transcription factors NST1 and NST3 regulate pod shattering in a partially redundant manner by promoting secondary wall formation after the establishment of tissue identity.
    Plant J., 2008. 56(5): p. 768-78
  8. Wang F,Shi DQ,Liu J,Yang WC
    Novel nuclear protein ALC-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 is expressed in vascular and mesocarp cells in Arabidopsis.
    J Integr Plant Biol, 2008. 50(7): p. 918-27
  9. Mummenhoff K,Polster A,M
    Lepidium as a model system for studying the evolution of fruit development in Brassicaceae.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2009. 60(5): p. 1503-13
  10. Hua S, et al.
    Sequence, expression divergence, and complementation of homologous ALCATRAZ loci in Brassica napus.
    Planta, 2009. 230(3): p. 493-503
  11. Skinner MK,Rawls A,Wilson-Rawls J,Roalson EH
    Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene family phylogenetics and nomenclature.
    Differentiation, 2010. 80(1): p. 1-8
  12. Irish VF
    The flowering of Arabidopsis flower development.
    Plant J., 2010. 61(6): p. 1014-28
  13. Arnaud N, et al.
    Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Genes Dev., 2010. 24(19): p. 2127-32
  14. Moran CN,Halliday KJ
    Fruit development: new directions for an old pathway.
    Curr. Biol., 2010. 20(24): p. R1081-3
  15. Arabidopsis Interactome Mapping Consortium
    Evidence for network evolution in an Arabidopsis interactome map.
    Science, 2011. 333(6042): p. 601-7
  16. Groszmann M,Paicu T,Alvarez JP,Swain SM,Smyth DR
    SPATULA and ALCATRAZ, are partially redundant, functionally diverging bHLH genes required for Arabidopsis gynoecium and fruit development.
    Plant J., 2011. 68(5): p. 816-29
  17. Avino M,Kramer EM,Donohue K,Hammel AJ,Hall JC
    Understanding the basis of a novel fruit type in Brassicaceae: conservation and deviation in expression patterns of six genes.
    Evodevo, 2012. 3(1): p. 20
  18. Lenser T,Thei
    Conservation of fruit dehiscence pathways between Lepidium campestre and Arabidopsis thaliana sheds light on the regulation of INDEHISCENT.
    Plant J., 2013. 76(4): p. 545-56
  19. Pabón-Mora N,Wong GK,Ambrose BA
    Evolution of fruit development genes in flowering plants.
    Front Plant Sci, 2014. 5: p. 300
  20. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  21. Pfannebecker KC,Lange M,Rupp O,Becker A
    Seed Plant-Specific Gene Lineages Involved in Carpel Development.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2017. 34(4): p. 925-942
  22. Zumajo-Cardona C,Ambrose BA,Pabón-Mora N
    Evolution of the SPATULA/ALCATRAZ gene lineage and expression analyses in the basal eudicot, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae).
    Evodevo, 2017. 8: p. 5
  23. He H, et al.
    CELLULASE6 and MANNANASE7 Affect Cell Differentiation and Silique Dehiscence.
    Plant Physiol., 2018. 176(3): p. 2186-2201