PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT5G61850.1
Common NameLFY, LFY3, MAC9.18
Organism
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family LFY
Protein Properties Length: 420aa    MW: 46582.3 Da    PI: 7.1121
Description floral meristem identity control protein LEAFY (LFY)
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT5G61850.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
1FLO_LFY622.76.5e-19013901386
      FLO_LFY   1 mdpeafsaslfkwdpraaaaapparlleeaavseapleaaaaaaarklreleelfkayGvryltvakiaelGftvstLvdmkdeelddlmkslseifr 98 
                  mdpe f++ lf+w+p  a +++p  + +  +  ++p++ ++aa  ++l +le lf  yG+r++t+akiaelGft+stLv+mkdeel+++m+sls+ifr
  AT5G61850.1   1 MDPEGFTSGLFRWNPTRALVQAPPPVPPPLQ--QQPVTPQTAAFGMRLGGLEGLFGPYGIRFYTAAKIAELGFTASTLVGMKDEELEEMMNSLSHIFR 96 
                  9*************77777666666655554..4444567778888899************************************************* PP

      FLO_LFY  99 ldllvGeryGikaavraerrrlee..eeaekkrrkll.....sedeetaldalsqeglseepvqeekeaagsggeglgeaelvaaeekkseeekkkas 189
                  ++llvGeryGikaavraerrrl+e  ee++++rr+ll      + +++aldalsqeglseepvq++ ++ ++g++g g ++   a +    + kk++ 
  AT5G61850.1  97 WELLVGERYGIKAAVRAERRRLQEeeEEESSRRRHLLlsaagDSGTHHALDALSQEGLSEEPVQQQDQTDAAGNNGGGGSGYWDAGQ---GKMKKQQ- 190
                  **********************99544456778887778844344556****************97776666666655666665553...2233333. PP

      FLO_LFY 190 kkkqkrkkkkelkseededeeeeededeegsgedge....erqrehPfivtepgevargkknGLDYLfdLyeqCrefLlqvqkiakerGekcPtkvtn 283
                   ++++rkk   ++ e+ded +e ed+d++++g++g+    erqrehPfivtepgevargkknGLDYLf+LyeqCrefLlqvq+iak+rGekcPtkvtn
  AT5G61850.1 191 -QQRRRKKPMLTSVETDEDVNEGEDDDGMDNGNGGSglgtERQREHPFIVTEPGEVARGKKNGLDYLFHLYEQCREFLLQVQTIAKDRGEKCPTKVTN 287
                  .233333444445556666666666666665555444455********************************************************** PP

      FLO_LFY 284 qvfryakkagasyinkPkmrhYvhCYalhcLdeeasnalrrafkergenvGawrqacykplvaiaarqgwdidavfnahprLsiWYvPtkLrqLChle 381
                  qvfryakk+gasyinkPkmrhYvhCYalhcLdeeasnalrrafkergenvG+wrqacykplv+ia r+gwdidavfnahprLsiWYvPtkLrqLChle
  AT5G61850.1 288 QVFRYAKKSGASYINKPKMRHYVHCYALHCLDEEASNALRRAFKERGENVGSWRQACYKPLVNIACRHGWDIDAVFNAHPRLSIWYVPTKLRQLCHLE 385
                  ************************************************************************************************** PP

      FLO_LFY 382 rskas 386
                  r++a+
  AT5G61850.1 386 RNNAV 390
                  *9975 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PfamPF016988.2E-2021389IPR002910Floricaula/leafy protein
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009740Biological Processgibberellic acid mediated signaling pathway
GO:0010077Biological Processmaintenance of inflorescence meristem identity
GO:0010582Biological Processfloral meristem determinacy
GO:0030154Biological Processcell differentiation
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0031490Molecular Functionchromatin DNA binding
GO:0042803Molecular Functionprotein homodimerization activity
GO:0043565Molecular Functionsequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0043621Molecular Functionprotein self-association
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009010anatomyseed
PO:0009046anatomyflower
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007600developmental stagefloral organ differentiation stage
PO:0007601developmental stagefloral organ meristem development stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 420 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
MDPEGFTSGL FRWNPTRALV QAPPPVPPPL QQQPVTPQTA AFGMRLGGLE GLFGPYGIRF  60
YTAAKIAELG FTASTLVGMK DEELEEMMNS LSHIFRWELL VGERYGIKAA VRAERRRLQE  120
EEEEESSRRR HLLLSAAGDS GTHHALDALS QEGLSEEPVQ QQDQTDAAGN NGGGGSGYWD  180
AGQGKMKKQQ QQRRRKKPML TSVETDEDVN EGEDDDGMDN GNGGSGLGTE RQREHPFIVT  240
EPGEVARGKK NGLDYLFHLY EQCREFLLQV QTIAKDRGEK CPTKVTNQVF RYAKKSGASY  300
INKPKMRHYV HCYALHCLDE EASNALRRAF KERGENVGSW RQACYKPLVN IACRHGWDID  360
AVFNAHPRLS IWYVPTKLRQ LCHLERNNAV AAAAALVGGI SCTGSSTSGR GGCGGDDLRF
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
Structure
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
2vy1_A1e-1452274201194PROTEIN LEAFY
2vy2_A1e-1452274201194PROTEIN LEAFY
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
GEO184245170.0
Genevisible247490_at0.0
Expression AtlasAT5G61850-
AtGenExpressAT5G61850-
ATTED-IIAT5G61850-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Expressed at an early stage of floral initiation.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed uniformly throughout the young floral primordia.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes transcriptional regulator that promotes the transition to flowering.Involved in floral meristem development. LFY is involved in the regulation of AP3 expression, and appears to bring the F-box protein UFO to the AP3 promoter.
UniProtProbable transcription factor that promotes early floral meristem identity in synergy with APETALA1. Is required subsequently for the transition of an inflorescence meristem into a floral meristem, by an immediate upstream regulation of the ABC classes of floral homeotic genes. Activates directly APETALA1, CAULIFLOWER and AGAMOUS, and indirectly APETALA3 and PISTILLATA with the cooperation of UFO. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:8565821, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9783581, ECO:0000269|Ref.6}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. LEAFY activates the expression of floral organ identity genes APETALA3, AGAMOUS and APETALA1
    [PMID: 9783581]
  2. FT regulates SOC1 expression, and SOC1 regulates LFY expression
    [PMID: 15695467]
  3. The transcription factor LFY controls the switch from vegetative to reproductive development.
    [PMID: 16554366]
  4. Mustard plsnt LcrLFY has diverged from A. thaliana in both the cis-regulatory and protein-coding regions which contribute to the evolution of rossette flowering.
    [PMID: 16915521]
  5. GA(4) is the active GA in the regulation of LFY transcription and Arabidopsis flowering time under short-day conditions.
    [PMID: 16920780]
  6. Activation of the LFY transcriptrion factor is required.
    [PMID: 18287201]
  7. Interaction with AGL24 relocates SOC1 to the nucleus, where SOC1 regulates leafy expression by binding to the LFY promoter.
    [PMID: 18466303]
  8. Results report crystal structures for the DNA-binding domain of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY bound to two target promoter elements.
    [PMID: 18784751]
  9. LFY and AGL15 are involved in the regulation of AtMYB17 in early inflorescence development and seed germination.
    [PMID: 19232308]
  10. Data show that LEAFY, FRUITFULL, and APETALA1 are directly activated by the microRNA-targeted transcription factor SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 3 (SPL3) to control the timing of flower formation.
    [PMID: 19686687]
  11. The motif analyses reveal a possible mechanism for stage-specific LFY recruitment and suggest a role for LFY in overcoming polycomb repression.
    [PMID: 21497757]
  12. A biophysical model describing LFY DNA binding specificity in vitro was built that accurately predicts in vivo LFY binding sites in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome.
    [PMID: 21515819]
  13. LEAFY binding site is essential for proper photoperiodic activation of APETALA1
    [PMID: 21623976]
  14. Data show that the direct LEAFY target LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY2 (LMI2) has a role in the meristem identity transition, and acts together with LEAFY to activate APETALA1.
    [PMID: 21750030]
  15. LFY activity affects adaxial pedicel identity and cell elongation. LFY mutation suppresses the crm1 pedicel length and orientation phenotypes.
    [PMID: 22050454]
  16. The SWI2/SNF2 ATPases physically interact with two direct transcriptional activators of class B and class C gene expression, LEAFY (LFY) and SEPALLATA3 (SEP3).
    [PMID: 22323601]
  17. Studies indicate that LEAFY is a master regulator of flowering.
    [PMID: 22451042]
  18. must act in complexes that contain at least two LFY molecules; the N-terminus is essential for stabilization
    [PMID: 22507399]
  19. these three transcription factors LFY, ANT and AIL6/PLT3 are redundantly required for flower primordium initiation.
    [PMID: 23375585]
  20. A LFY allele with reduced floral function revealed its ability to stimulate axillary meristem growth. This role requires the ability of LFY to bind DNA, and is mediated by direct induction of REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEMS1 (RAX1) by LFY.
    [PMID: 23445516]
  21. LEAFY controls auxin response pathways in floral primordium formation.
    [PMID: 23572147]
  22. The ULT1 and LFY pathways act separately in regulating identity and determinacy at the floral meristem. In particular, they independently induce AG expression in the centre of the flower to terminate meristem activity.
    [PMID: 25288633]
  23. Data suggest that helix-turn-helix transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) and the MADS box transcription factor APETALA1 (AP1)together orchestrate the switch to flower formation and morphogenesis by altering transcriptional programs.
    [PMID: 26096587]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
MP00095SELEX26531826Download
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
SourceLink
PlantRegMapAT5G61850.1
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Positively regulated by CAULIFLOWER and APETALA1. Down-regulated by TFL1.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
PlantRegMapRetrieveRetrieve
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G14920 (A), AT1G26310 (A), AT1G52880 (A), AT1G69120 (A), AT1G71692 (A), AT1G76420 (A), AT2G22630 (A), AT2G27990 (A), AT2G33810 (A), AT2G45660 (A), AT4G02560 (A), AT4G24540 (A), AT4G37750 (A), AT5G02030 (A), AT5G06100 (A), AT5G15840 (A), AT5G18560 (A), AT5G60910 (A)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G26310(A), AT1G52880(A), AT1G68480(R), AT1G69120(A), AT1G69180(A), AT1G76420(A), AT3G23130(A), AT3G54340(A), AT3G61250(A), AT4G18960(A), AT4G24540(R), AT5G03790(A), AT5G03840(R), AT5G11530(R), AT5G20240(A), AT5G51600(A)
Regulation -- Hormone ? help Back to Top
Source Hormone
AHDgibberellin
Interaction -- BIND ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With Description
BINDAT1G69120LFY interacts with AP1 promoter.
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT5G61850
IntActSearch Q00958
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT5G61850
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankDQ4471030.0DQ447103.1 Arabidopsis thaliana clone pENTR221-At5g61850 floral meristem identity control protein LEAFY (At5g61850) mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_200993.10.0protein LEAFY
SwissprotQ009580.0LFY_ARATH; Protein LEAFY
TrEMBLA0A023T4L80.0A0A023T4L8_ARATH; Protein leafy
STRINGAT5G61850.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
MalvidsOGEM79072841
Representative plantOGRP70181619
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Ratcliffe OJ,Bradley DJ,Coen ES
    Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis.
    Development, 1999. 126(6): p. 1109-20
    [PMID:10021331]
  2. Page T,Macknight R,Yang CH,Dean C
    Genetic interactions of the Arabidopsis flowering time gene FCA, with genes regulating floral initiation.
    Plant J., 1999. 17(3): p. 231-9
    [PMID:10097382]
  3. Aukerman MJ,Lee I,Weigel D,Amasino RM
    The Arabidopsis flowering-time gene LUMINIDEPENDENS is expressed primarily in regions of cell proliferation and encodes a nuclear protein that regulates LEAFY expression.
    Plant J., 1999. 18(2): p. 195-203
    [PMID:10363371]
  4. Liljegren SJ,Gustafson-Brown C,Pinyopich A,Ditta GS,Yanofsky MF
    Interactions among APETALA1, LEAFY, and TERMINAL FLOWER1 specify meristem fate.
    Plant Cell, 1999. 11(6): p. 1007-18
    [PMID:10368173]
  5. Brunel D,Froger N,Pelletier G
    Development of amplified consensus genetic markers (ACGM) in Brassica napus from Arabidopsis thaliana sequences of known biological function.
    Genome, 1999. 42(3): p. 387-402
    [PMID:10382288]
  6. Melzer S,Kampmann G,Chandler J,Apel K
    FPF1 modulates the competence to flowering in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 1999. 18(4): p. 395-405
    [PMID:10406123]
  7. Wagner D,Sablowski RW,Meyerowitz EM
    Transcriptional activation of APETALA1 by LEAFY.
    Science, 1999. 285(5427): p. 582-4
    [PMID:10417387]
  8. Busch MA,Bomblies K,Weigel D
    Activation of a floral homeotic gene in Arabidopsis.
    Science, 1999. 285(5427): p. 585-7
    [PMID:10417388]
  9. Bl
    Independent regulation of flowering by phytochrome B and gibberellins in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 1999. 120(4): p. 1025-32
    [PMID:10444085]
  10. Amaya I,Ratcliffe OJ,Bradley DJ
    Expression of CENTRORADIALIS (CEN) and CEN-like genes in tobacco reveals a conserved mechanism controlling phase change in diverse species.
    Plant Cell, 1999. 11(8): p. 1405-18
    [PMID:10449576]
  11. Mendoza L,Thieffry D,Alvarez-Buylla ER
    Genetic control of flower morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana: a logical analysis.
    Bioinformatics, 1999 Jul-Aug. 15(7-8): p. 593-606
    [PMID:10487867]
  12. Kobayashi Y,Kaya H,Goto K,Iwabuchi M,Araki T
    A pair of related genes with antagonistic roles in mediating flowering signals.
    Science, 1999. 286(5446): p. 1960-2
    [PMID:10583960]
  13. Kardailsky I, et al.
    Activation tagging of the floral inducer FT.
    Science, 1999. 286(5446): p. 1962-5
    [PMID:10583961]
  14. Bomblies K,Dagenais N,Weigel D
    Redundant enhancers mediate transcriptional repression of AGAMOUS by APETALA2.
    Dev. Biol., 1999. 216(1): p. 260-4
    [PMID:10588876]
  15. Samach A, et al.
    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is an F-box protein required for normal patterning and growth in the floral meristem.
    Plant J., 1999. 20(4): p. 433-45
    [PMID:10607296]
  16. Ezhova TA
    [Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. as a model object for studying genetic control of morphogenesis].
    Genetika, 1999. 35(11): p. 1522-37
    [PMID:10624575]
  17. Hempel FD,Welch DR,Feldman LJ
    Floral induction and determination: where is flowering controlled?
    Trends Plant Sci., 2000. 5(1): p. 17-21
    [PMID:10637657]
  18. Ferrándiz C,Gu Q,Martienssen R,Yanofsky MF
    Redundant regulation of meristem identity and plant architecture by FRUITFULL, APETALA1 and CAULIFLOWER.
    Development, 2000. 127(4): p. 725-34
    [PMID:10648231]
  19. Molinero-Rosales N, et al.
    FALSIFLORA, the tomato orthologue of FLORICAULA and LEAFY, controls flowering time and floral meristem identity.
    Plant J., 1999. 20(6): p. 685-93
    [PMID:10652140]
  20. Honma T,Goto K
    The Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene PISTILLATA is regulated by discrete cis-elements responsive to induction and maintenance signals.
    Development, 2000. 127(10): p. 2021-30
    [PMID:10769227]
  21. Bl
    Integration of floral inductive signals in Arabidopsis.
    Nature, 2000. 404(6780): p. 889-92
    [PMID:10786797]
  22. Shu G,Amaral W,Hileman LC,Baum DA
    LEAFY and the evolution of rosette flowering in violet cress (Jonopsidium acaule, Brassicaceae).
    Am. J. Bot., 2000. 87(5): p. 634-41
    [PMID:10811787]
  23. Rottmann WH, et al.
    Diverse effects of overexpression of LEAFY and PTLF, a poplar (Populus) homolog of LEAFY/FLORICAULA, in transgenic poplar and Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2000. 22(3): p. 235-45
    [PMID:10849341]
  24. Onouchi H,Ige
    Mutagenesis of plants overexpressing CONSTANS demonstrates novel interactions among Arabidopsis flowering-time genes.
    Plant Cell, 2000. 12(6): p. 885-900
    [PMID:10852935]
  25. Sessions A,Yanofsky MF,Weigel D
    Cell-cell signaling and movement by the floral transcription factors LEAFY and APETALA1.
    Science, 2000. 289(5480): p. 779-82
    [PMID:10926540]
  26. Lee H, et al.
    The AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 MADS domain protein integrates floral inductive pathways in Arabidopsis.
    Genes Dev., 2000. 14(18): p. 2366-76
    [PMID:10995392]
  27. Sakai H,Krizek BA,Jacobsen SE,Meyerowitz EM
    Regulation of SUP expression identifies multiple regulators involved in arabidopsis floral meristem development.
    Plant Cell, 2000. 12(9): p. 1607-18
    [PMID:11006335]
  28. Deyholos MK,Sieburth LE
    Separable whorl-specific expression and negative regulation by enhancer elements within the AGAMOUS second intron.
    Plant Cell, 2000. 12(10): p. 1799-810
    [PMID:11041877]
  29. Juenger T,Purugganan M,Mackay TF
    Quantitative trait loci for floral morphology in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Genetics, 2000. 156(3): p. 1379-92
    [PMID:11063709]
  30. Pe
    Constitutive expression of Arabidopsis LEAFY or APETALA1 genes in citrus reduces their generation time.
    Nat. Biotechnol., 2001. 19(3): p. 263-7
    [PMID:11231561]
  31. Ng M,Yanofsky MF
    Activation of the Arabidopsis B class homeotic genes by APETALA1.
    Plant Cell, 2001. 13(4): p. 739-53
    [PMID:11283333]
  32. Gocal GF, et al.
    Evolution of floral meristem identity genes. Analysis of Lolium temulentum genes related to APETALA1 and LEAFY of Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2001. 125(4): p. 1788-801
    [PMID:11299359]
  33. G
    early bolting in short days: an Arabidopsis mutation that causes early flowering and partially suppresses the floral phenotype of leafy.
    Plant Cell, 2001. 13(5): p. 1011-24
    [PMID:11340178]
  34. Chou ML,Haung MD,Yang CH
    EMF genes interact with late-flowering genes in regulating floral initiation genes during shoot development in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2001. 42(5): p. 499-507
    [PMID:11382816]
  35. Lohmann JU, et al.
    A molecular link between stem cell regulation and floral patterning in Arabidopsis.
    Cell, 2001. 105(6): p. 793-803
    [PMID:11440721]
  36. Cremer F,L
    The delayed terminal flower phenotype is caused by a conditional mutation in the CENTRORADIALIS gene of snapdragon.
    Plant Physiol., 2001. 126(3): p. 1031-41
    [PMID:11457954]
  37. Zhao D,Yu Q,Chen M,Ma H
    The ASK1 gene regulates B function gene expression in cooperation with UFO and LEAFY in Arabidopsis.
    Development, 2001. 128(14): p. 2735-46
    [PMID:11526079]
  38. Ohto M, et al.
    Effects of sugar on vegetative development and floral transition in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2001. 127(1): p. 252-61
    [PMID:11553753]
  39. Ahearn KP,Johnson HA,Weigel D,Wagner DR
    NFL1, a Nicotiana tabacum LEAFY-like gene, controls meristem initiation and floral structure.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2001. 42(10): p. 1130-9
    [PMID:11673629]
  40. Himi S, et al.
    Evolution of MADS-box gene induction by FLO/LFY genes.
    J. Mol. Evol., 2001 Oct-Nov. 53(4-5): p. 387-93
    [PMID:11675598]
  41. Baum SF,Eshed Y,Bowman JL
    The Arabidopsis nectary is an ABC-independent floral structure.
    Development, 2001. 128(22): p. 4657-67
    [PMID:11714690]
  42. Gocal GF, et al.
    GAMYB-like genes, flowering, and gibberellin signaling in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2001. 127(4): p. 1682-93
    [PMID:11743113]
  43. Wagner D,Meyerowitz EM
    SPLAYED, a novel SWI/SNF ATPase homolog, controls reproductive development in Arabidopsis.
    Curr. Biol., 2002. 12(2): p. 85-94
    [PMID:11818058]
  44. Colucci G,Apone F,Alyeshmerni N,Chalmers D,Chrispeels MJ
    GCR1, the putative Arabidopsis G protein-coupled receptor gene is cell cycle-regulated, and its overexpression abolishes seed dormancy and shortens time to flowering.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2002. 99(7): p. 4736-41
    [PMID:11930019]
  45. Lamb RS,Hill TA,Tan QK,Irish VF
    Regulation of APETALA3 floral homeotic gene expression by meristem identity genes.
    Development, 2002. 129(9): p. 2079-86
    [PMID:11959818]
  46. Parcy F,Bomblies K,Weigel D
    Interaction of LEAFY, AGAMOUS and TERMINAL FLOWER1 in maintaining floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis.
    Development, 2002. 129(10): p. 2519-27
    [PMID:11973282]
  47. Olsen KM,Womack A,Garrett AR,Suddith JI,Purugganan MD
    Contrasting evolutionary forces in the Arabidopsis thaliana floral developmental pathway.
    Genetics, 2002. 160(4): p. 1641-50
    [PMID:11973317]
  48. Nakajima K,Benfey PN
    Signaling in and out: control of cell division and differentiation in the shoot and root.
    Plant Cell, 2002. 14 Suppl: p. S265-76
    [PMID:12045282]
  49. Wada M,Cao QF,Kotoda N,Soejima J,Masuda T
    Apple has two orthologues of FLORICAULA/LEAFY involved in flowering.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2002. 49(6): p. 567-77
    [PMID:12081365]
  50. Albert VA,Oppenheimer DG,Lindqvist C
    Pleiotropy, redundancy and the evolution of flowers.
    Trends Plant Sci., 2002. 7(7): p. 297-301
    [PMID:12119166]
  51. Nakagawa M,Shimamoto K,Kyozuka J
    Overexpression of RCN1 and RCN2, rice TERMINAL FLOWER 1/CENTRORADIALIS homologs, confers delay of phase transition and altered panicle morphology in rice.
    Plant J., 2002. 29(6): p. 743-50
    [PMID:12148532]
  52. Carmona MJ,Cubas P,Martínez-Zapater JM
    VFL, the grapevine FLORICAULA/LEAFY ortholog, is expressed in meristematic regions independently of their fate.
    Plant Physiol., 2002. 130(1): p. 68-77
    [PMID:12226487]
  53. Shannon S,Meeks-Wagner DR
    Genetic Interactions That Regulate Inflorescence Development in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 1993. 5(6): p. 639-655
    [PMID:12271079]
  54. Huala E,Sussex IM
    LEAFY Interacts with Floral Homeotic Genes to Regulate Arabidopsis Floral Development.
    Plant Cell, 1992. 4(8): p. 901-913
    [PMID:12297664]
  55. Schultz EA,Haughn GW
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