PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT5G44190.1
Common NameATGLK2, GLK2, GPRI2, MLN1.11
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family G2-like
Protein Properties Length: 386aa    MW: 42167.3 Da    PI: 6.6047
Description GOLDEN2-like 2
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT5G44190.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
      G2-like   1 kprlrWtpeLHerFveaveqLGGsekAtPktilelmkvkgLtlehvkSHLQkYRla 56 
                  kp+++WtpeLH++Fv+aveqL G +kA+P++ile+m+vk+Lt+++v+SHLQkYR++
                  79*******************.********************************86 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PROSITE profilePS5129416.18144203IPR017930Myb domain
TIGRFAMsTIGR015571.6E-26147201IPR006447Myb domain, plants
PfamPF002492.5E-8150199IPR001005SANT/Myb domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0009658Biological Processchloroplast organization
GO:0009910Biological Processnegative regulation of flower development
GO:0010380Biological Processregulation of chlorophyll biosynthetic process
GO:0045893Biological Processpositive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:1900056Biological Processnegative regulation of leaf senescence
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0005515Molecular Functionprotein binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000084anatomyplant sperm cell
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0008019anatomyleaf lamina base
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007064developmental stageLP.12 twelve leaves visible stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007098developmental stageLP.02 two leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007123developmental stageLP.06 six leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 386 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
Search in ModeBase
Nucleic Localization Signal ? help Back to Top
No. Start End Sequence
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.196380.0bud| flower| inflorescence| seed| silique
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT5G44190-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in cotyledons and rosette and cauline leaves. Expressed at low levels in roots, shoots, flowers and siliques. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12220263}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes GLK2, Golden2-like 2, one of a pair of partially redundant nuclear transcription factors that regulate chloroplast development in a cell-autonomous manner. GLK1, Golden2-like 1, is encoded by At2g20570. GLK1 and GLK2 regulate the expression of the photosynthetic apparatus.
UniProtTranscriptional activator that functions with GLK1 to promote chloroplast development. Acts as an activator of nuclear photosynthetic genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, light harvesting, and electron transport. Acts in a cell-autonomous manner to coordinate and maintain the photosynthetic apparatus within individual cells. May function in photosynthetic capacity optimization by integrating responses to variable environmental and endogenous cues (PubMed:11828027, PubMed:12220263, PubMed:18643989, PubMed:19376934, PubMed:19383092, PubMed:19726569). Prevents premature senescence (PubMed:23459204). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11828027, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12220263, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18643989, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19376934, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19383092, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19726569, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23459204}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. GLK1 and GLK2 are functionally equivalent. They act in a cell-autonomous manner to regulate chloroplast development. When mis-expressed in the phloem, GLKs can be unloaded into adjoining photosynthetic tissue.
    [PMID: 18643989]
  2. GLK1 and GLK2 stimulate expression of chlorophyll biosynthesis and light-harvesting genes.
    [PMID: 19376934]
  3. ORE1 interacts with the G2-like transcription factors GLK1 and GLK2, which are important for chloroplast development and maintenance.
    [PMID: 23459204]
  4. Overexpression of GLKs caused up-regulation of not only their direct targets but also non-target nuclear and plastid genes, leading to global induction of chloroplast biogenesis in the root.
    [PMID: 23749810]
  5. Overexpressors of the Golden2-like transcription factors GLK1 and GLK2 were identified as genomes uncoupled mutants.
    [PMID: 26876646]
  6. plants that overexpress GLK1/2 exhibited an open-stomata phenotype and higher sensitivity to ozone
    [PMID: 27035938]
  7. results indicated that GLKs played a positively role in virus resistance in Arabidopsis
    [PMID: 27346129]
  8. P69 binding to GLK proteins may interfere with the interaction between GLK proteins and upstream transcription factors, causing defective binding of GLK proteins to their targets.
    [PMID: 27964999]
  9. Results indicate key regulatory features of the GATA NITRATE-INDUCIBLE CARBON-METABOLISM-INVOLVED (GNC) and GOLDEN TWO-LIKE (GLK2) transcription factor families that contribute to the control of chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthetic activity.
    [PMID: 30002259]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: By light. Repressed by BZR2. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12220263, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21214652}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G19350 (R)
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
IntActSearch Q9FFH0
Phenotype -- Disruption Phenotype ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtDISRUPTION PHENOTYPE: Pale green siliques (PubMed:12220263). Pale-green seedlings in double mutants glk1/glk2 (PubMed:23459204). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12220263, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23459204}.
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT5G44190
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAB0624900.0AB062490.1 Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for GPRI2, complete cds.
GenBankAY0267730.0AY026773.1 Arabidopsis thaliana golden2-like transcription factor (GLK2) mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_199232.10.0GOLDEN2-like 2
SwissprotQ9FFH00.0GLK2_ARATH; Transcription activator GLK2
STRINGAT5G44190.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP28401529
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Tamai H,Iwabuchi M,Meshi T
    Arabidopsis GARP transcriptional activators interact with the Pro-rich activation domain shared by G-box-binding bZIP factors.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2002. 43(1): p. 99-107
  3. Fitter DW,Martin DJ,Copley MJ,Scotland RW,Langdale JA
    GLK gene pairs regulate chloroplast development in diverse plant species.
    Plant J., 2002. 31(6): p. 713-27
  4. Yamada K, et al.
    Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome.
    Science, 2003. 302(5646): p. 842-6
  5. Jiao Y, et al.
    A genome-wide analysis of blue-light regulation of Arabidopsis transcription factor gene expression during seedling development.
    Plant Physiol., 2003. 133(4): p. 1480-93
  6. Czechowski T,Bari RP,Stitt M,Scheible WR,Udvardi MK
    Real-time RT-PCR profiling of over 1400 Arabidopsis transcription factors: unprecedented sensitivity reveals novel root- and shoot-specific genes.
    Plant J., 2004. 38(2): p. 366-79
  7. Souret FF,Kastenmayer JP,Green PJ
    AtXRN4 degrades mRNA in Arabidopsis and its substrates include selected miRNA targets.
    Mol. Cell, 2004. 15(2): p. 173-83
  8. Nawy T, et al.
    Transcriptional profile of the Arabidopsis root quiescent center.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(7): p. 1908-25
  9. Truman W,de Zabala MT,Grant M
    Type III effectors orchestrate a complex interplay between transcriptional networks to modify basal defence responses during pathogenesis and resistance.
    Plant J., 2006. 46(1): p. 14-33
  10. Cao D,Cheng H,Wu W,Soo HM,Peng J
    Gibberellin mobilizes distinct DELLA-dependent transcriptomes to regulate seed germination and floral development in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 142(2): p. 509-25
  11. Soitamo AJ,Piippo M,Allahverdiyeva Y,Battchikova N,Aro EM
    Light has a specific role in modulating Arabidopsis gene expression at low temperature.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2008. 8: p. 13
  12. Waters MT,Moylan EC,Langdale JA
    GLK transcription factors regulate chloroplast development in a cell-autonomous manner.
    Plant J., 2008. 56(3): p. 432-44
  13. Ascencio-Ib
    Global analysis of Arabidopsis gene expression uncovers a complex array of changes impacting pathogen response and cell cycle during geminivirus infection.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 148(1): p. 436-54
  14. Waters MT, et al.
    GLK transcription factors coordinate expression of the photosynthetic apparatus in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2009. 21(4): p. 1109-28
  15. Bravo-Garcia A,Yasumura Y,Langdale JA
    Specialization of the Golden2-like regulatory pathway during land plant evolution.
    New Phytol., 2009. 183(1): p. 133-41
  16. Kakizaki T, et al.
    Coordination of plastid protein import and nuclear gene expression by plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling.
    Plant Physiol., 2009. 151(3): p. 1339-53
  17. Yu X, et al.
    A brassinosteroid transcriptional network revealed by genome-wide identification of BESI target genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2011. 65(4): p. 634-46
  18. Yu B, et al.
    Arabidopsis cpSRP54 regulates carotenoid accumulation in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2012. 63(14): p. 5189-202
  19. Kobayashi K,Obayashi T,Masuda T
    Role of the G-box element in regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis in Arabidopsis roots.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2012. 7(8): p. 922-6
  20. Wang P, et al.
    Evolution of GOLDEN2-LIKE gene function in C(3) and C (4) plants.
    Planta, 2013. 237(2): p. 481-95
  21. Rauf M, et al.
    ORE1 balances leaf senescence against maintenance by antagonizing G2-like-mediated transcription.
    EMBO Rep., 2013. 14(4): p. 382-8
  22. Kobayashi K, et al.
    Photosynthesis of root chloroplasts developed in Arabidopsis lines overexpressing GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2013. 54(8): p. 1365-77
  23. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  24. Leister D,Kleine T
    Definition of a core module for the nuclear retrograde response to altered organellar gene expression identifies GLK overexpressors as gun mutants.
    Physiol Plant, 2016. 157(3): p. 297-309
  25. Nagatoshi Y, et al.
    GOLDEN 2-LIKE transcription factors for chloroplast development affect ozone tolerance through the regulation of stomatal movement.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016. 113(15): p. 4218-23
  26. Han XY, et al.
    GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors coordinate the tolerance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2016. 477(4): p. 626-632
  27. Ni F, et al.
    Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus P69 Interacts with and Suppresses GLK Transcription Factors to Cause Pale-Green Symptoms in Arabidopsis.
    Mol Plant, 2017. 10(5): p. 764-766
  28. Bastakis E,Hedtke B,Klermund C,Grimm B,Schwechheimer C
    LLM-Domain B-GATA Transcription Factors Play Multifaceted Roles in Controlling Greening in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2018. 30(3): p. 582-599
  29. Zubo YO, et al.
    Coordination of Chloroplast Development through the Action of the GNC and GLK Transcription Factor Families.
    Plant Physiol., 2018. 178(1): p. 130-147