Plant Transcription Factor Database
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Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT5G16560.1
Common NameKAN, KAN1, MQK4.31
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family G2-like
Protein Properties Length: 403aa    MW: 45845.5 Da    PI: 8.6549
Description G2-like family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT5G16560.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
      G2-like   2 prlrWtpeLHerFveaveqLGGsekAtPktilelmkvkgLtlehvkSHLQkYRl 55 
                  pr+rWt+ LH+rFv+ave LGG+e+AtPk++lelm+vk+Ltl+hvkSHLQ+YR+
                  9****************************************************7 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
TIGRFAMsTIGR015579.2E-24220273IPR006447Myb domain, plants
PfamPF002495.8E-7221272IPR001005SANT/Myb domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009887Biological Processorgan morphogenesis
GO:0009944Biological Processpolarity specification of adaxial/abaxial axis
GO:0009956Biological Processradial pattern formation
GO:0010051Biological Processxylem and phloem pattern formation
GO:0010158Biological Processabaxial cell fate specification
GO:0010229Biological Processinflorescence development
GO:0048481Biological Processplant ovule development
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0005515Molecular Functionprotein binding
GO:0044212Molecular Functiontranscription regulatory region DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000015anatomycotyledon primordium
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0004703anatomycarpel primordium
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 403 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT5G16560-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: In globular embryos, expressed in the peripheral cells in a basal region above the hypophysis. In heart-stage embryos, expressed in the periphery of the presumptive hypocotyl and on the abaxial side of cotyledon primordia. During vegetative growth, expressed the abaxial side of very young leaf primordia. Expressed on the abaxial side of carpel primordia and then in a localized region on the abaxial margin that gives rise to the septum. Later, expressed in the tissue that gives rise to ovules. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11525739}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in developing phloem and lateral root. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11525739, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14561401, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15286295}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes a KANADI protein (KAN) that regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis. KAN is required for abaxial identity in both leaves and carpels, and encodes a nuclear-localized protein in the GARP family of putative transcription factors. Together with KAN2, this gene appears to be involved in the development of the carpel and the outer integument of the ovule.Along with KAN2 and KAN4, KAN1 appears to be required for proper regulation of PIN1 in early embryogenesis.
UniProtTranscriptional repressor that regulates lateral organ polarity. Promotes lateral organ abaxial identity by repressing the adaxial regulator ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) in abaxial cells. Required for abaxial identity in both leaves and carpels. Functions with KAN2 in the specification of polarity of the ovule outer integument. Regulates cambium activity by repressing the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. Plays a role in lateral root formation and development. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11395775, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11525739, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14561401, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15286295, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16623911, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17307928, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18849474, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20179097}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. As KANADI is not required for either ETT or ARF4 transcription, and their overexpression cannot rescue kanadi mutants, cooperative activity is implied.
    [PMID: 16199616]
  2. KAN1 acts as a transcriptional repressor and that mutually repressive interactions between KAN1 and AS2 contribute to the establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity in plants
    [PMID: 18849474]
  3. Class III HD-ZIP and KANADI transcription factors control cambium activity: KANADI proteins by acting on auxin transport, and Class III HD-ZIP proteins by promoting axial cell elongation and xylem differentiation.
    [PMID: 20179097]
  4. Leaf polarity is established by the opposed actions of HD-ZIPIII and KANADI transcription factors.
    [PMID: 22578006]
  5. HD-ZIPIII and KANADI regulate tissue-specific transcription factors involved in subsidiary developmental decisions, nearly all major hormone pathways, and new actors (such as indeterminate domain4) in the ad/abaxial regulatory network.
    [PMID: 24076978]
  6. a set of potential direct target genes of KAN1, were identified.
    [PMID: 24155946]
  7. HD-ZIPIII and KANADI transcription factors pattern auxin accumulation and responsiveness in the embryo.
    [PMID: 24464295]
  8. ULT1 and KAN1 acting antagonistically to pattern the adaxial-abaxial polarity axis but jointly to pattern the apical-basal axis.
    [PMID: 25381352]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Repressed by AS2 in adaxial tissue. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:18849474}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G30490 (R), AT1G65620 (R), AT2G34710 (R)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G65620(R), AT1G73590(R)
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT1G18400, AT1G32240
IntActSearch Q93WJ9
Phenotype -- Disruption Phenotype ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtDISRUPTION PHENOTYPE: Flat leaves. Altered morphology of abaxial mesophyll cells. Decreased number of trichomes on the adaxial surface and increased number of abaxial trichomes. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11395775, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11525739}.
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT5G16560
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankBT0264360.0BT026436.1 Arabidopsis thaliana At5g16560 mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankAY0486880.0AY048688.1 Arabidopsis thaliana GARP-like putative transcription factor KANADI1 (KAN1) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankAY0301920.0AY030192.1 Arabidopsis thaliana clone A1-2 KANADI protein (KAN) mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_568334.10.0transcription repressor KAN1
SwissprotQ93WJ90.0KAN1_ARATH; Transcription repressor KAN1
TrEMBLR0H7C90.0R0H7C9_9BRAS; Uncharacterized protein
STRINGAT5G16560.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP5701580
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Eshed Y,Baum SF,Bowman JL
    Distinct mechanisms promote polarity establishment in carpels of Arabidopsis.
    Cell, 1999. 99(2): p. 199-209
  2. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  3. Kerstetter RA,Bollman K,Taylor RA,Bomblies K,Poethig RS
    KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis.
    Nature, 2001. 411(6838): p. 706-9
  4. Eshed Y,Baum SF,Perea JV,Bowman JL
    Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants.
    Curr. Biol., 2001. 11(16): p. 1251-60
  5. Golz JF,Hudson A
    Signalling in plant lateral organ development.
    Plant Cell, 2002. 14 Suppl: p. S277-88
  6. Bollman KM, et al.
    HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis.
    Development, 2003. 130(8): p. 1493-504
  7. Lin WC,Shuai B,Springer PS
    The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(10): p. 2241-52
  8. Emery JF, et al.
    Radial patterning of Arabidopsis shoots by class III HD-ZIP and KANADI genes.
    Curr. Biol., 2003. 13(20): p. 1768-74
  9. Eshed Y,Izhaki A,Baum SF,Floyd SK,Bowman JL
    Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities.
    Development, 2004. 131(12): p. 2997-3006
  10. Engstrom EM,Izhaki A,Bowman JL
    Promoter bashing, microRNAs, and Knox genes. New insights, regulators, and targets-of-regulation in the establishment of lateral organ polarity in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2004. 135(2): p. 685-94
  11. Hawker NP,Bowman JL
    Roles for Class III HD-Zip and KANADI genes in Arabidopsis root development.
    Plant Physiol., 2004. 135(4): p. 2261-70
  12. Zhao C,Craig JC,Petzold HE,Dickerman AW,Beers EP
    The xylem and phloem transcriptomes from secondary tissues of the Arabidopsis root-hypocotyl.
    Plant Physiol., 2005. 138(2): p. 803-18
  13. Pekker I,Alvarez JP,Eshed Y
    Auxin response factors mediate Arabidopsis organ asymmetry via modulation of KANADI activity.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(11): p. 2899-910
  14. McAbee JM, et al.
    ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE encodes a KANADI family member, linking polarity determination to separation and growth of Arabidopsis ovule integuments.
    Plant J., 2006. 46(3): p. 522-31
  15. Iwasaki M,Nitasaka E
    The FEATHERED gene is required for polarity establishment in lateral organs especially flowers of the Japanese morning glory (I pomoea nil ).
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2006. 62(6): p. 913-25
  16. Huang W, et al.
    The proteolytic function of the Arabidopsis 26S proteasome is required for specifying leaf adaxial identity.
    Plant Cell, 2006. 18(10): p. 2479-92
  17. Demura T,Fukuda H
    Transcriptional regulation in wood formation.
    Trends Plant Sci., 2007. 12(2): p. 64-70
  18. Izhaki A,Bowman JL
    KANADI and class III HD-Zip gene families regulate embryo patterning and modulate auxin flow during embryogenesis in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2007. 19(2): p. 495-508
  19. Kim YK, et al.
    ATHB23, an Arabidopsis class I homeodomain-leucine zipper gene, is expressed in the adaxial region of young leaves.
    Plant Cell Rep., 2007. 26(8): p. 1179-85
  20. Fu Y, et al.
    Genetic interactions between leaf polarity-controlling genes and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 in Arabidopsis leaf patterning.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2007. 48(5): p. 724-35
  21. Ha CM,Jun JH,Nam HG,Fletcher JC
    BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 and 2 control Arabidopsis lateral organ fate through regulation of LOB domain and adaxial-abaxial polarity genes.
    Plant Cell, 2007. 19(6): p. 1809-25
  22. Luo Z, et al.
    Genetic analysis and fine mapping of a dynamic rolled leaf gene, RL10(t), in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
    Genome, 2007. 50(9): p. 811-7
  23. Wu G, et al.
    KANADI1 regulates adaxial-abaxial polarity in Arabidopsis by directly repressing the transcription of ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2008. 105(42): p. 16392-7
  24. Kelley DR,Skinner DJ,Gasser CS
    Roles of polarity determinants in ovule development.
    Plant J., 2009. 57(6): p. 1054-64
  25. Prado AM,Cola
    Targeting of pollen tubes to ovules is dependent on nitric oxide (NO) signaling.
    Mol Plant, 2008. 1(4): p. 703-14
  26. Ikezaki M, et al.
    Genetic networks regulated by ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) and AS2 in leaf development in Arabidopsis thaliana: KNOX genes control five morphological events.
    Plant J., 2010. 61(1): p. 70-82
  27. Ilegems M, et al.
    Interplay of auxin, KANADI and Class III HD-ZIP transcription factors in vascular tissue formation.
    Development, 2010. 137(6): p. 975-84
  28. Arabidopsis Interactome Mapping Consortium
    Evidence for network evolution in an Arabidopsis interactome map.
    Science, 2011. 333(6042): p. 601-7
  29. Causier B,Ashworth M,Guo W,Davies B
    The TOPLESS interactome: a framework for gene repression in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2012. 158(1): p. 423-38
  30. Kelley DR,Arreola A,Gallagher TL,Gasser CS
    ETTIN (ARF3) physically interacts with KANADI proteins to form a functional complex essential for integument development and polarity determination in Arabidopsis.
    Development, 2012. 139(6): p. 1105-9
  31. Nakata M, et al.
    Roles of the middle domain-specific WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX genes in early development of leaves in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2012. 24(2): p. 519-35
  32. Brandt R, et al.
    Genome-wide binding-site analysis of REVOLUTA reveals a link between leaf patterning and light-mediated growth responses.
    Plant J., 2012. 72(1): p. 31-42
  33. Moschopoulos A,Derbyshire P,Byrne ME
    The Arabidopsis organelle-localized glycyl-tRNA synthetase encoded by EMBRYO DEFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT1 is required for organ patterning.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2012. 63(14): p. 5233-43
  34. Bonaccorso O,Lee JE,Puah L,Scutt CP,Golz JF
    FILAMENTOUS FLOWER controls lateral organ development by acting as both an activator and a repressor.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2012. 12: p. 176
  35. Reinhart BJ, et al.
    Establishing a framework for the Ad/abaxial regulatory network of Arabidopsis: ascertaining targets of class III homeodomain leucine zipper and KANADI regulation.
    Plant Cell, 2013. 25(9): p. 3228-49
  36. Merelo P, et al.
    Genome-wide identification of KANADI1 target genes.
    PLoS ONE, 2013. 8(10): p. e77341
  37. Huang T, et al.
    Arabidopsis KANADI1 acts as a transcriptional repressor by interacting with a specific cis-element and regulates auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signaling in opposition to HD-ZIPIII factors.
    Plant Cell, 2014. 26(1): p. 246-62
  38. Pires HR,Monfared MM,Shemyakina EA,Fletcher JC
    ULTRAPETALA trxG genes interact with KANADI transcription factor genes to regulate Arabidopsis gynoecium patterning.
    Plant Cell, 2014. 26(11): p. 4345-61
  39. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73