PlantTFDB
PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT5G10510.3
Common NameAIL6, PLT3
Organism
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family AP2
Protein Properties Length: 604aa    MW: 67693.4 Da    PI: 6.8903
Description AINTEGUMENTA-like 6
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT5G10510.3genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
1AP249.61e-15389440155
          AP2   1 sgykGVrwdkkrgrWvAeIrdpsengkrkrfslgkfgtaeeAakaaiaarkkleg 55 
                  s y+GV++++++grW A+I  +     +k  +lg+f t+eeAa+a++ a+ k++g
  AT5G10510.3 389 SIYRGVTRHHQQGRWQARIGRVAG---NKDLYLGTFATEEEAAEAYDIAAIKFRG 440
                  57****************988532...5************************997 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
CDDcd000181.86E-13267356No hitNo description
PROSITE profilePS5103213.34268354IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene3DG3DSA:3.30.730.105.2E-6268354IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SMARTSM003801.3E-12268360IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SuperFamilySSF541713.73E-6308355IPR016177DNA-binding domain
CDDcd000183.79E-11389448No hitNo description
PfamPF008474.2E-10389440IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SuperFamilySSF541711.18E-17389449IPR016177DNA-binding domain
Gene3DG3DSA:3.30.730.105.7E-18390448IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PROSITE profilePS5103219.111390448IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SMARTSM003807.9E-31390454IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009873Biological Processethylene-activated signaling pathway
GO:0010080Biological Processregulation of floral meristem growth
GO:0010492Biological Processmaintenance of shoot apical meristem identity
GO:0035265Biological Processorgan growth
GO:0048364Biological Processroot development
GO:0060772Biological Processleaf phyllotactic patterning
GO:0060774Biological Processauxin mediated signaling pathway involved in phyllotactic patterning
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0016021Cellular Componentintegral component of membrane
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0044212Molecular Functiontranscription regulatory region DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0008019anatomyleaf lamina base
PO:0009005anatomyroot
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009010anatomyseed
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009029anatomystamen
PO:0009030anatomycarpel
PO:0009031anatomysepal
PO:0009032anatomypetal
PO:0009046anatomyflower
PO:0009047anatomystem
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020038anatomypetiole
PO:0020100anatomyhypocotyl
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007064developmental stageLP.12 twelve leaves visible stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007098developmental stageLP.02 two leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007123developmental stageLP.06 six leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 604 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
MMAPMTNWLT FSLSPMEMLR SSDQSQFVSY DASSAASSSP YLLDNFYGWS NQKPQEFFKE  60
EAQLAAAASM ADSTILTTFV DPQSHHSQNH IPKLEDFLGD SSSIVRYSDN SQTDTQDSSL  120
TQIYDPRHHH NQTGFYSDHH DFKTMAGFQS AFSTNSGSEV DDSASIGRTH LAGDYLGHVV  180
ESSGPELGFH GGSTGALSLG VNVNNNTNHR NDNDNHYRGN NNGERINNNN NNDNEKTDSE  240
KEKAVVAVET SDCSNKKIAD TFGQRTSIYR GVTRHRWTGR YEAHLWDNSC RREGQARKGR  300
QVFYSFFGMC YLIWGCILAL LKINSGYDKE DKAARAYDLA ALKYWNATAT TNFPITNYSK  360
EVEEMKHMTK QEFIASLRRK SSGFSRGASI YRGVTRHHQQ GRWQARIGRV AGNKDLYLGT  420
FATEEEAAEA YDIAAIKFRG INAVTNFEMN RYDVEAIMKS ALPIGGAAKR LKLSLEAAAS  480
SEQKPILGHH QLHHFQQQQQ QQQLQLQSSP NHSSINFALC PNSAVQSQQI IPCGIPFEAA  540
ALYHHHQQQQ QHQQQQQQQN FFQHFPANAA SDSTGSNNNS NVQGTMGLMA PNPAEFFLWP  600
NQSY
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Genevisible250426_at0.0
Expression AtlasAT5G10510-
AtGenExpressAT5G10510-
ATTED-IIAT5G10510-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Detected in inflorescence and youg floral mersitems, and in stem procambial cells. In floral mersitems, mostly expressed in the central dome. Disappears progressively from sepal primordia, but accumulates in second, third and fourth whorl organ primordia. Later, confined to occasional patches in stamens and in petal before disparearing progressively from flowers. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15988559}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in roots, seedlings, hypocotyl, inflorescence, siliques, and pistils. Also detected at low levels in leaves. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15988559, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16307362}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes an AP2-domain transcription factor involved in root stem cell identity and root development.
UniProtProbably acts as a transcriptional activator. Binds to the GCC-box pathogenesis-related promoter element. May be involved in the regulation of gene expression by stress factors and by components of stress signal transduction pathways (By similarity). {ECO:0000250}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. ANT and AIL6 are important regulators of floral growth and patterning and that they may act downstream of auxin in these processes.
    [PMID: 19542297]
  2. PLT proteins are key regulators of PIN1 activity in control of phyllotaxis. PLT3, PLT5, and PLT7 are essential for normal phyllotaxis. [PLT3]
    [PMID: 21700457]
  3. Very high levels of AIL6 expression inhibit cellular differentiation. In contrast, ant ail6 double mutants display premature differentiation of floral meristem cells.
    [PMID: 22076630]
  4. ANT, AIL6 and AIL7 are expressed in distinct domains within the vegetative shoot apical meristem. Triple mutant shoot apical meristems exhibit morphological and cell division defects.
    [PMID: 22380923]
  5. these three transcription factors LFY, ANT and AIL6/PLT3 are redundantly required for flower primordium initiation.
    [PMID: 23375585]
  6. In A. thaliana, three transcriptional regulators implicated in phyllotaxis, PLETHORA3 (PLT3), PLT5, and PLT7, are expressed in incipient lateral root primordia where they are required for primordium development and lateral root emergence.
    [PMID: 23684976]
  7. PLT3, PLT5, and PLT7 additionally regulate and require the shoot-promoting factor CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 (CUC2) to complete the shoot-formation program.
    [PMID: 25819565]
  8. AIL genes exhibit unequal genetic redundancy with roles for AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 only revealed in the absence of ANT function. AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 act in a dose dependent manners in ant and other mutant backgrounds.
    [PMID: 25956884]
  9. The results presented here indicate that AIL6 intronic sequences serve as transcriptional enhancer elements.
    [PMID: 26459062]
  10. ANT and AIL6 directly induce LFY expression in response to auxin to promote the onset of flower formation.
    [PMID: 26537561]
  11. AIL6 regulates biological pathways that are critical for cell wall remodeling and defense.
    [PMID: 27208279]
  12. This study characterized the effects of three PLETHORA (PLT) transcription factors, PLT3, PLT5, and PLT7, during lateral root outgrowth.
    [PMID: 29078398]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
MP00504DAP27203113Download
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
SourceLink
PlantRegMapAT5G10510.3
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
PlantRegMapRetrieveRetrieve
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT4G18960(A)
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT5G10510
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAY9741970.0AY974197.1 Arabidopsis thaliana clone At5g10510 AP2/EREBP transcription factor mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_001190279.10.0AINTEGUMENTA-like 6
SwissprotQ52QU20.0AIL6_ARATH; AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor AIL6
TrEMBLF4KGW70.0F4KGW7_ARATH; AINTEGUMENTA-like 6
STRINGAT5G10510.30.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
MalvidsOGEM33332765
Representative plantOGRP11217209
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Krizek BA,Prost V,Macias A
    AINTEGUMENTA promotes petal identity and acts as a negative regulator of AGAMOUS.
    Plant Cell, 2000. 12(8): p. 1357-66
    [PMID:10948255]
  2. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
    [PMID:11118137]
  3. Nole-Wilson S,Tranby TL,Krizek BA
    AINTEGUMENTA-like (AIL) genes are expressed in young tissues and may specify meristematic or division-competent states.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2005. 57(5): p. 613-28
    [PMID:15988559]
  4. Kim S,Soltis PS,Wall K,Soltis DE
    Phylogeny and domain evolution in the APETALA2-like gene family.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2006. 23(1): p. 107-20
    [PMID:16151182]
  5. Galinha C, et al.
    PLETHORA proteins as dose-dependent master regulators of Arabidopsis root development.
    Nature, 2007. 449(7165): p. 1053-7
    [PMID:17960244]
  6. Krizek B
    AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 act redundantly to regulate Arabidopsis floral growth and patterning.
    Plant Physiol., 2009. 150(4): p. 1916-29
    [PMID:19542297]
  7. Krizek BA
    Aintegumenta and Aintegumenta-Like6 regulate auxin-mediated flower development in Arabidopsis.
    BMC Res Notes, 2011. 4: p. 176
    [PMID:21645408]
  8. Prasad K, et al.
    Arabidopsis PLETHORA transcription factors control phyllotaxis.
    Curr. Biol., 2011. 21(13): p. 1123-8
    [PMID:21700457]
  9. Gaudinier A, et al.
    Enhanced Y1H assays for Arabidopsis.
    Nat. Methods, 2011. 8(12): p. 1053-5
    [PMID:22037706]
  10. Krizek BA,Eaddy M
    AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 regulates cellular differentiation in flowers.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2012. 78(3): p. 199-209
    [PMID:22076630]
  11. Mudunkothge JS,Krizek BA
    Three Arabidopsis AIL/PLT genes act in combination to regulate shoot apical meristem function.
    Plant J., 2012. 71(1): p. 108-21
    [PMID:22380923]
  12. Dhonukshe P, et al.
    A PLETHORA-auxin transcription module controls cell division plane rotation through MAP65 and CLASP.
    Cell, 2012. 149(2): p. 383-96
    [PMID:22500804]
  13. Pinon V,Prasad K,Grigg SP,Sanchez-Perez GF,Scheres B
    Local auxin biosynthesis regulation by PLETHORA transcription factors controls phyllotaxis in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2013. 110(3): p. 1107-12
    [PMID:23277580]
  14. Yamaguchi N, et al.
    A molecular framework for auxin-mediated initiation of flower primordia.
    Dev. Cell, 2013. 24(3): p. 271-82
    [PMID:23375585]
  15. Hofhuis H, et al.
    Phyllotaxis and rhizotaxis in Arabidopsis are modified by three PLETHORA transcription factors.
    Curr. Biol., 2013. 23(11): p. 956-62
    [PMID:23684976]
  16. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
    [PMID:25750178]
  17. Kareem A, et al.
    PLETHORA Genes Control Regeneration by a Two-Step Mechanism.
    Curr. Biol., 2015. 25(8): p. 1017-30
    [PMID:25819565]
  18. Krizek BA
    AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2015. 66(15): p. 4537-49
    [PMID:25956884]
  19. Krizek BA
    Intronic sequences are required for AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 expression in Arabidopsis flowers.
    BMC Res Notes, 2015. 8: p. 556
    [PMID:26459062]
  20. Yamaguchi N,Jeong CW,Nole-Wilson S,Krizek BA,Wagner D
    AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6/PLETHORA3 Induce LEAFY Expression in Response to Auxin to Promote the Onset of Flower Formation in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2016. 170(1): p. 283-93
    [PMID:26537561]
  21. Krizek BA, et al.
    RNA-Seq Links the Transcription Factors AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 to Cell Wall Remodeling and Plant Defense Pathways.
    Plant Physiol., 2016. 171(3): p. 2069-84
    [PMID:27208279]
  22. Du Y,Scheres B
    PLETHORA transcription factors orchestrate de novo organ patterning during Arabidopsis lateral root outgrowth.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2017. 114(44): p. 11709-11714
    [PMID:29078398]
  23. Klucher KM,Chow H,Reiser L,Fischer RL
    The AINTEGUMENTA gene of Arabidopsis required for ovule and female gametophyte development is related to the floral homeotic gene APETALA2.
    Plant Cell, 1996. 8(2): p. 137-53
    [PMID:8742706]
  24. Elliott RC, et al.
    AINTEGUMENTA, an APETALA2-like gene of Arabidopsis with pleiotropic roles in ovule development and floral organ growth.
    Plant Cell, 1996. 8(2): p. 155-68
    [PMID:8742707]
  25. Okamuro JK,Caster B,Villarroel R,Van Montagu M,Jofuku KD
    The AP2 domain of APETALA2 defines a large new family of DNA binding proteins in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1997. 94(13): p. 7076-81
    [PMID:9192694]
  26. Schneitz K,Baker SC,Gasser CS,Redweik A
    Pattern formation and growth during floral organogenesis: HUELLENLOS and AINTEGUMENTA are required for the formation of the proximal region of the ovule primordium in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Development, 1998. 125(14): p. 2555-63
    [PMID:9636071]