PlantTFDB
PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT5G10140.4
Common NameAGL25, FLC, FLF, RSB6
Organism
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family MIKC_MADS
Protein Properties Length: 182aa    MW: 20236.3 Da    PI: 8.9847
Description MIKC_MADS family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT5G10140.4genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
1SRF-TF771.4e-24959151
                 S---SHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHT-EEEEEEE-TTSEEEEEE- CS
       SRF-TF  1 krienksnrqvtfskRrngilKKAeELSvLCdaevaviifsstgklyeyss 51
                 krienks rqvtfskRrng++ KA  LSvLCda va++++s +gkly +ss
  AT5G10140.4  9 KRIENKSSRQVTFSKRRNGLIEKARQLSVLCDASVALLVVSASGKLYSFSS 59
                 79***********************************************96 PP

2K-box39.52.4e-14841561890
        K-box  18 qqelakLkkeienLqreqRhllGedLesLslkeLqqLeqqLekslkkiRskKnellleqieelqkkekelqee 90 
                  q ++ +  + +e L+    +l+G ++++ s+  L qLe++Le++l+  R+kK+el+l+ +e+l++k++++++ 
  AT5G10140.4  84 QSKALNYGSHYELLELVDSKLVGSNVKNVSIDALVQLEEHLETALSVTRAKKTELMLKLVENLKEKMENNHHV 156
                  4455555678899999999*************************************************99875 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PROSITE profilePS5006629.955161IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
SMARTSM004327.9E-35160IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
CDDcd002658.58E-38278No hitNo description
SuperFamilySSF554551.96E-28279IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004045.9E-26323IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PROSITE patternPS003500357IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PfamPF003191.3E-231057IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004045.9E-262338IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004045.9E-263859IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PROSITE profilePS5129710.19680165IPR002487Transcription factor, K-box
PfamPF014863.6E-991154IPR002487Transcription factor, K-box
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009910Biological Processnegative regulation of flower development
GO:0010048Biological Processvernalization response
GO:0030154Biological Processcell differentiation
GO:0042752Biological Processregulation of circadian rhythm
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0043234Cellular Componentprotein complex
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0046983Molecular Functionprotein dimerization activity
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000025anatomyroot tip
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0009005anatomyroot
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009010anatomyseed
PO:0009013anatomyportion of meristem tissue
PO:0009031anatomysepal
PO:0009046anatomyflower
PO:0009066anatomyanther
PO:0020021anatomyintegument
PO:0020030anatomycotyledon
PO:0020100anatomyhypocotyl
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0007057developmental stageseed germination stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0025374developmental stageseed dormant stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 182 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
MGRKKLEIKR IENKSSRQVT FSKRRNGLIE KARQLSVLCD ASVALLVVSA SGKLYSFSSG  60
DNLVKILDRY GKQHADDLKA LDHQSKALNY GSHYELLELV DSKLVGSNVK NVSIDALVQL  120
EEHLETALSV TRAKKTELML KLVENLKEKM ENNHHVGAEA EMEMSPAGQI SDNLPVTLPL  180
LN
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
Structure
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
6byy_A1e-17170169MEF2 CHIMERA
6byy_B1e-17170169MEF2 CHIMERA
6byy_C1e-17170169MEF2 CHIMERA
6byy_D1e-17170169MEF2 CHIMERA
6bz1_A1e-17170169MEF2 CHIMERA
6bz1_B1e-17170169MEF2 CHIMERA
6bz1_C1e-17170169MEF2 CHIMERA
6bz1_D1e-17170169MEF2 CHIMERA
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Genevisible250476_at0.0
Expression AtlasAT5G10140-
AtGenExpressAT5G10140-
ATTED-IIAT5G10140-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Found in shoots of non-flowering plants grown under long-day conditions at days 4 to 15, and in shoots of plants grown under short-day conditions at days 4 to 11 after germination. Expressed in embryos from the early globular stage. FLC is not imprinted and both parental alleles contribute equally to expression in embryos. Expression is repressed during gametogenesis, and is then reactivated after fertilization in embryos. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19121105}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: High expression in the vegetative apex and in root tissue and lower expression in leaves and stems. Not detected in young tissues of the inflorescence. Before fertilization, expressed in ovules, but not in pollen or stamens, of non-vernalized plants. After vernalization, not detected in ovules. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19121105}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtPutative transcription factor that seems to play a central role in the regulation of flowering time in the late-flowering phenotype by interacting with 'FRIGIDA', the autonomous and the vernalization flowering pathways. Inhibits flowering by repressing 'SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1'. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10716723, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11283346, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19121105}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. We propose a hypothesis to illustrate the distinct mechanism by which vernalization regulates the expression of FLC in cabbage and Arabidopsis. [FLC]
    [PMID: 15734903]
  2. The contribution to variation in flowering time and vernalization of the two genes FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), previously shown to be important determinants in natural variation of flowering time is reported. [FLC]
    [PMID: 15908596]
  3. The effects of Arabidopsis Flowering Locus C on flowering initiation and biomass in transgenic N. tabacum is reported. [FLC]
    [PMID: 16008094]
  4. The role of DNA methylation of FLC in the vernalization pathway of A. thaliana is reported.
    [PMID: 16236152]
  5. SDG8-mediated H3K36 methylation is a novel epigenetic memory code required for FLC expression in preventing early flowering
    [PMID: 16299497]
  6. FLC lengthens the circadian period specifically at 27 degrees C, contributing to temperature compensation of the circadian clock.
    [PMID: 16473970]
  7. ATARP6 positively regulates FLC accumulation.
    [PMID: 16495307]
  8. FRI upregulates FLC expression that represses flowering
    [PMID: 16547097]
  9. lhp1 mutants revealed a role for LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 in maintaining epigenetic silencing of FLC
    [PMID: 16549797]
  10. FLC delays flowering by repressing production in the leaf of at least two systemic signals, one of which is controlled by the RAF kinase inhibitor-like protein FT.
    [PMID: 16600915]
  11. FLC is a component of a multimeric protein complex in vivo and that more than one FLC polypeptides can be present in the complex.
    [PMID: 16623882]
  12. under-expressed in the MGO3 mutant background
    [PMID: 16728410]
  13. This study has aided in the understanding of Flowering Locus C's role in the clock, as it reveals that the network affecting circadian timing is partially overlapping with the floral-regulatory network.
    [PMID: 16737527]
  14. Variation in epigenetic silencing of FLC appears to have contributed to Arabidopsis adaptation.
    [PMID: 17114581]
  15. SUF4 bound to the promoter of FLC in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, suggesting that SUF4 acts as a transcriptional activator of FLC after forming a complex with FRI and FRL1.
    [PMID: 17138694]
  16. FLC activation by the histone variant H2A.Z is required for the repression of flowering.
    [PMID: 17220196]
  17. Arabidopsis SWC6 (AtSWC6), SUPPRESSOR OF FRIGIDA 3 (SUF3) and PHOTOPERIOD-INDEPENDENT EARLY FLOWERING 1 (PIE1) are homologs of SWC6, ARP6 and SWR1 with roles in development, including floral repression through full activation of FLOWERING LOCUS C
    [PMID: 17470967]
  18. Attenuation of brassinosteroid signaling enhances FLC expression and delays flowering.
    [PMID: 17611230]
  19. ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX 1 (ATH1)controls floral competency as a specific activator of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) expression.
    [PMID: 17908157]
  20. Data show that the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C was repressed by Arabidopsis relatives of the human lysine-specific Demethylase1 and thus promote the floral transition.
    [PMID: 17921315]
  21. Trimethyl-lysine 27 (K27me3) is enriched at the start of the FLC gene during cold treatment, before spreading across the locus after vernalization.
    [PMID: 17980595]
  22. There is a close association of FCA and FLD in mediating H3K4 demethylation and thus transcriptional silencing of FLC.
    [PMID: 17996704]
  23. Data show that FLC expression can be promoted by SIZ1 by repressing FLD activity through sumoylation.
    [PMID: 18069938]
  24. The role of FLX in the timing of flowers and the expression of other flowering-related proteins, including FRIGIDA and FLC, is reported.
    [PMID: 18156133]
  25. arginine methylation of FLC chromatin is part of the histone code that is required for mitotic stability of the vernalized state
    [PMID: 18178621]
  26. Data show that the epigenetic regulation of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C was done by ATX1 and ATX1 directly binds the active FLC locus before flowering and that this interaction is released upon the transition to flowering.
    [PMID: 18375656]
  27. Variation in regulation of this protein may generate different flowering behaviors.[REVIEW]
    [PMID: 18444908]
  28. 'Activating' H3K4me3 and 'silencing' H3K27me3 modifications co-exist at 5'-end nucleosomes of transcriptionally active FLC-gene, while highly transcribed AP1 displays neither of the two marks.
    [PMID: 18638531]
  29. a low red to far-red ratio lessened the effects of FLC despite continued FLC expression. A low red to far-red ratio required the photoperiod-pathway genes GIGANTEA (GI) and CONSTANS (CO) to fully accelerate flowering in long days
    [PMID: 18790998]
  30. The monoubiquitination of H2B in the chromatin of the FLC locus via UBC1,UBC2 HUB1, and HUB2 represents a novel form of histone modification that is involved in flowering time regulation.
    [PMID: 18849490]
  31. PRC2-like complexes containing CLF, EMF2 and FIE, directly interact with and deposit into FT, FLC and FLC relatives repressive trimethyl H3K27 leading to the suppression of active H3K4me3 in these loci, repressing expression of these flowering genes.
    [PMID: 18852898]
  32. FLC is post-translationally modified by phosphorylation which leads to early flowering.
    [PMID: 18988635]
  33. A mutation in a H2B deubiquitinase, UBIQUITIN-SPECIFIC PROTEASE26 (UBP26), results in an early-flowering phenotype in the ubp26 mutant in Arabidopsis
    [PMID: 19091875]
  34. Epigenetic reprogramming of FLC gene expression takes place during gametogenesis and embryogenesis.
    [PMID: 19121105]
  35. The regulation of CiMFL expression in time and space and in relation to environmental conditions is only partially conserved with respect to FLC isolated from A. thaliana.
    [PMID: 19291007]
  36. The frequencies of the FLC haplotypes were not significantly affected by selection under spring-annual conditions.
    [PMID: 19317844]
  37. the muted flowering time response of Bla-6 results from high levels of the floral repressor FLC, blocking the low red light induction of FT.
    [PMID: 19563438]
  38. Major flowering time gene, flowering locus C, regulates seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    [PMID: 19564609]
  39. PEP is a new factor for FLC upregulation, underscoring the importance of RNA-binding activities during developmental timing of flowering
    [PMID: 19576878]
  40. Data suggest that FLC is repressed via a novel pathway involving the SIR2 class of histone deacetylases.
    [PMID: 19825652]
  41. Results demonstrate the presence of feedback loop that delays flowering through the increase of FLC when a cold spell is transient but suppresses the cold response when floral induction occurs through the repression of cold-inducible genes by SOC1.
    [PMID: 19825833]
  42. Both classes of H3K4 methylases, atx1 and atxr7, appear to be required for proper regulation of FLC expression.
    [PMID: 19855050]
  43. characterization of RNA-mediated chromatin silencing of FLC; CstF64 and CstF77 are required for 3' processing of FLC antisense transcripts; targeted processing triggers localized histone demethylase activity and results in reduced FLC sense transcription
    [PMID: 19965720]
  44. cold-induced FLC antisense transcripts have an early role in the epigenetic silencing of FLC, acting to silence FLC transcription transiently; recruitment of the Polycomb machinery then confers the epigenetic memory
    [PMID: 20010688]
  45. CDC73 is required for high levels of FLC expression in a subset of autonomous-pathway-mutant backgrounds and functions both to promote activating histone modifications (H3K4me3) as well as preventing repressive ones (e.g. H3K27me3).
    [PMID: 20463090]
  46. analysis of control of seasonal expression of the Arabidopsis FLC gene in a fluctuating environment
    [PMID: 20534541]
  47. The transcriptional activation of FLC, how different activities are integrated at this one locus and why FLC regulation seems so sensitive to mutation in these conserved gene regulatory pathways, are discussed.
    [PMID: 20884277]
  48. findings show that a long intronic noncoding RNA (COLDAIR)] is required for the vernalization-mediated epigenetic repression of FLC; COLDAIR physically associates with a component of PRC2 and targets PRC2 to FLC
    [PMID: 21127216]
  49. Results suggest that AGL6 acts as a floral promoter with a dual role, the inhibition of the transcription of the FLC/MAF genes and the promotion of FT expression in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 21175890]
  50. These results indicate novel and FCA-independent roles for FY in the regulation of FLC.
    [PMID: 21209277]
  51. results demonstrate that the onset and the progression of vegetative phase change are regulated by different combinations of endogenous and environmental factors, and reveal a role for FLC in vegetative development
    [PMID: 21228003]
  52. effect of changes in transcription rate on the abundance of H3K27me3 in the FLC gene body, a chromatin region that includes sequences required to maintain FLC repression following vernalization
    [PMID: 21276103]
  53. Formation of the FRI complex leads to the active chromatin state of the FLC gene.
    [PMID: 21282526]
  54. Data show that the promoter and first exon of the FLC gene are sufficient to initiate repression during vernalization; this initial repression of FLC does not require antisense transcription.
    [PMID: 21713009]
  55. The spatial patterns of FRI, FLC, and PHYC polymorphisms are significantly associated with winter temperatures and spring and winter precipitations, respectively. The allelic variation in these genes is involved in climatic adaptation.
    [PMID: 21988878]
  56. Current understanding of the molecular mechanism of vernalization-mediated FLC silencing, is described.
    [PMID: 22078062]
  57. MSI5 acts in partial redundancy with FVE to silence FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which is a crucial floral repressor subject to asRNA-mediated silencing, FLC homologs
    [PMID: 22102827]
  58. Antagonistic roles of SEPALLATA3, FT and FLC genes as targets of the polycomb group gene CURLY LEAF
    [PMID: 22363474]
  59. UGT87A2 regulates flowering time via the flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C.
    [PMID: 22404750]
  60. study concludes that DCL4 promotes transcription termination of the FCA gene, reducing the amount of aberrant RNA produced from the locus
    [PMID: 22461611]
  61. These results are consistent with Del(-57) allele acting as a novel cis-regulatory FLC polymorphism that may confer climatic adaptation by increasing vernalization sensitivity.
    [PMID: 22494398]
  62. the dynamics of FLC transcription and associated histone H3K27me3 activity are closely linked biologically
    [PMID: 22543923]
  63. The mutations of AtPRMT10 derepress FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) expression resulting in a late-flowering phenotype.
    [PMID: 22729397]
  64. vacuolar and/or endocytic trafficking is involved in the FLC regulation of flowering time in A. thaliana
    [PMID: 22848750]
  65. The FLC loop is disrupted during vernalization, the cold-induced, Polycomb-dependent epigenetic silencing of FLC. Loop disruption parallels timing of the cold-induced FLC transcriptional shut-down and upregulation of FLC antisense transcripts.
    [PMID: 23222483]
  66. FLC gene family are differentially regulated during the course of vernalization to mediate proper vernalization response.
    [PMID: 23417034]
  67. FLC protein plays role in vernalization and de-vernalization responses.
    [PMID: 23581257]
  68. identified a homeodomain protein, AtNDX (At4g03090), that regulates COOLAIR, a set of antisense transcripts originating from the 3' end of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC); R-loop stabilization mediated by AtNDX inhibits COOLAIR transcription, which in turn modifies FLC expression
    [PMID: 23641115]
  69. The FLOWERING LOCUS C clade members act as part of several MADS-domain complexes with partial redundancy, which integrate responses to endogenous and environmental cues to control flowering.
    [PMID: 23770815]
  70. Sumoylation of FLC is critical for its role in the control of flowering time and that AtSIZ1 positively regulates FLC-mediated floral suppression.
    [PMID: 24218331]
  71. HOS1 acts as a chromatin remodeling factor for FLC regulation under short-term cold stress.
    [PMID: 24220632]
  72. The miR169 family regulates stress-induced flowering by repressing the AtNF-YA transcription factor, which in turn reduces the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), allowing for the expression of FLC target genes
    [PMID: 24336445]
  73. HOS1 regulates FLC transcription via chromatin remodeling.
    [PMID: 24390058]
  74. BAF60 creates a repressive chromatin configuration at the FLC locus.
    [PMID: 24510722]
  75. Suggest that altered splicing of a long noncoding transcript COOLAIR can quantitatively modulate FLC gene expression through cotranscriptional coupling mechanisms.
    [PMID: 24725596]
  76. cdkc;2 specifically reduces transcription of COOLAIR antisense transcripts, which indirectly up-regulates FLC expression through disruption of a COOLAIR-mediated repression mechanism.
    [PMID: 24799695]
  77. five predominant FLC haplotypes defined by noncoding sequence variation. Genetic and transgenic experiments show that they are functionally distinct, varying in FLC expression level and rate of epigenetic silencing
    [PMID: 25035417]
  78. For many phases of the vernalization process H3K36me3 and H3K27me3 show opposing profiles in the FLC nucleation region and gene body, and H3K36me3 and H3K27me3 rarely coexist on the same histone tail; this antagonism is functionally important.
    [PMID: 25065750]
  79. JMJ30/AT3G20810 and JMJ32/AT3G45880, two members of the JmjC domain-only group of JMJ proteins, function as H3K27 demethylases and regulate FLC expression.
    [PMID: 25267112]
  80. genetic analysis showed COOLAIR and Polycomb complexes work independently in the cold-dependent silencing of FLC.
    [PMID: 25349421]
  81. The expression of FLC gene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants in extreme conditions in northern margins of species range.
    [PMID: 25474881]
  82. Our data better delineates the roles of PEP in plant development and, for the first time, links FLK to a morphogenetic process
    [PMID: 25658099]
  83. cold temperature exposure is likely to be registered in an all-or-nothing (digital) manner at the relevant gene FLOWERING LOCUS C
    [PMID: 25775579]
  84. a single natural intronic polymorphism in one haplotype affects FLC expression and thus flowering by specifically changing splicing of the FLC antisense transcript COOLAIR.
    [PMID: 25805848]
  85. The downstream targets of the SVP:FLC complex include a higher proportion of genes regulating floral induction, whereas those bound by either TF independently are biased towards floral development.
    [PMID: 25853185]
  86. Epigenetic memory of FLC expression is stored not in trans memory but in cis memory.
    [PMID: 25955967]
  87. Intragenic methylation triggered by RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) promoted FT expression. DNA methylation of the FT gene body blocked flowering locus C (FLC)repressor binding to the CArG boxes.
    [PMID: 26076969]
  88. FLC appears as a major modulator of the natural variation for the plasticity of flowering to multiple environmental factors.
    [PMID: 26173848]
  89. INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION 1 integrates cold signals into FLOWERING LOCUS C-mediated flowering pathways in Arabidopsis
    [PMID: 26248809]
  90. SKIP interacted with the Paf1c to modulate the expression of FLC clade genes at the transcriptional level.
    [PMID: 26384244]
  91. ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4), a key component in the abscisic acid signalling pathway, negatively regulates floral transition by directly promoting FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) transcription. ABI4-overexpressing plants had delayed floral transition.
    [PMID: 26507894]
  92. these findings report that the interaction between MADS box transcription factor FLC and GRAS domain regulator DELLAs may integrate various signaling inputs in flowering time control, and shed new light on the regulatory mechanism both for FLC and DELLAs in regulating gene expression.
    [PMID: 26584710]
  93. genotypes, many of which have high levels of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), that bolted dramatically earlier in fluctuating - as opposed to constant - warm temperatures, were identified.
    [PMID: 26681345]
  94. this study investigated how FCA and FLD transcriptionally repress FLC through analysis of Pol II occupancy.
    [PMID: 26699513]
  95. propose that BRR2a is specifically needed for efficient splicing of a subset of introns characterized by a combination of factors including intron size, sequence and chromatin, and that FLC is most sensitive to splicing defects
    [PMID: 27100965]
  96. We also demonstrate that PTM, a PHD transcription factor involved in chloroplast retrograde signaling, perceives such a signal and mediates transcriptional repression of FLC through recruitment of FVE, a component of the histone deacetylase complex.
    [PMID: 27601637]
  97. this study identified a novel bona fide SUMO protease, ASP1, which positively regulates transition to flowering at least partly by repressing FLC protein stability.
    [PMID: 27925396]
  98. FACKEL (FK) may affect the flowering in Arabidopsis mainly via gibberellic acid (GA) pathway and vernalization pathway. And these effects are partially dependent on the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC).
    [PMID: 28108812]
  99. The relationship between H2AK121ub and H3K27me3 marks across the A. thaliana genome and unveil that ubiquitination by PRC1 is largely independent of PRC2 activity in plants, while the inverse is true for H3K27 trimethylation.
    [PMID: 28403905]
  100. FLC silencing is inherited through in vitro regeneration
    [PMID: 28498984]
  101. The vernalization insensitivity caused by mutant COLDAIR was rescued by the ectopic expression of the wild-type COLDAIR. Our study reveals the molecular framework in which COLDAIR lncRNA mediates the PRC2-mediated repression of FLC during vernalization.
    [PMID: 28759577]
  102. The results suggest that TAF15b affects flowering time through transcriptional repression of FLC in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 29086456]
  103. Taken together, the findings suggest that AtIPK2beta negatively regulates flowering time by blocking chromatin silencing of FLC.
    [PMID: 29161428]
  104. PWWP domain proteins function together with FVE and MSI5 to regulate the function of the PRC2 complex on FLC.
    [PMID: 29314758]
  105. FLC cis elements are recognized by VAL1 specific B3 domain during vernalization.
    [PMID: 29733847]
  106. For seed dormancy, FT regulates seed dormancy through FLC gene expression and regulates chromatin state by activating antisense FLC transcription.
    [PMID: 29853684]
  107. The steroid hormone brassinosteroid (BR) signaling promotes the expression of the potent floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and three FLC homologs to inhibit flowering. In the presence of BR, histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase downregulate levels of the repressive H3K27 trimethylation mark and thus antagonize Polycomb silencing at FLC, leading to its activation.
    [PMID: 29969683]
  108. We identify and characterize TARGET OF FLC AND SVP1 (TFS1), a novel target gene of FLC and its interacting protein SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP). TFS1 encodes a B3-type transcription factor, and we show that tfs1 mutants are later flowering than wild-type, particularly under short days.
    [PMID: 30946745]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
MP00079ChIP-seq26531826Download
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
SourceLink
PlantRegMapAT5G10140.4
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Epigenetically down-regulated by vernalization. Vernalization repression is initiated by VIN3. Repressed by silencing mediated by polycomb group (PcG) protein complex containing EMF1 and EMF2. Up-regulated by HUA2. Down-regulated by VOZ1 and/or VOZ2. Down-regulated by RBG7. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:14712276, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15659097, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18573194, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19783648, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22904146}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
PlantRegMapRetrieveRetrieve
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G19350 (R), AT2G33835 (A), AT3G18990 (R), AT3G48430 (R), AT4G02560 (R), AT4G32980 (A)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G04400(R), AT1G18330(R), AT1G65480(R), AT2G45660(R), AT3G46640(A), AT4G20370(R), AT4G35900(R)
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT5G10140
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAY8500020.0AY850002.1 Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Van-0 flowering locus C protein (FLC) mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_001190272.11e-129K-box region and MADS-box transcription factor family protein
SwissprotQ9S7Q71e-124FLC_ARATH; MADS-box protein FLOWERING LOCUS C
TrEMBLQ58T141e-128Q58T14_ARATH; Flowering locus C protein
STRINGAT5G10140.11e-122(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Sheldon CC, et al.
    The FLF MADS box gene: a repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis regulated by vernalization and methylation.
    Plant Cell, 1999. 11(3): p. 445-58
    [PMID:10072403]
  2. Smith HB
    Planned parenthood in Arabidopsis: FLOWERING LOCUS C.
    Plant Cell, 1999. 11(5): p. 763-4
    [PMID:10330462]
  3. Michaels SD,Amasino RM
    FLOWERING LOCUS C encodes a novel MADS domain protein that acts as a repressor of flowering.
    Plant Cell, 1999. 11(5): p. 949-56
    [PMID:10330478]
  4. Swarup K, et al.
    Natural allelic variation identifies new genes in the Arabidopsis circadian system.
    Plant J., 1999. 20(1): p. 67-77
    [PMID:10571866]
  5. Dennis ES, et al.
    Methylation controls the low temperature induction of flowering in Arabidopsis.
    Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol., 1998. 51: p. 97-103
    [PMID:10645430]
  6. Sheldon CC,Rouse DT,Finnegan EJ,Peacock WJ,Dennis ES
    The molecular basis of vernalization: the central role of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC).
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2000. 97(7): p. 3753-8
    [PMID:10716723]
  7. Lee H, et al.
    The AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 MADS domain protein integrates floral inductive pathways in Arabidopsis.
    Genes Dev., 2000. 14(18): p. 2366-76
    [PMID:10995392]
  8. Sheldon CC, et al.
    The control of flowering by vernalization.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol., 2000. 3(5): p. 418-22
    [PMID:11019811]
  9. van Nocke S,Muszynski M,Briggs K,Amasino RM
    Characterization of a gene from Zea mays related to the Arabidopsis flowering-time gene LUMINIDEPENDENS.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2000. 44(1): p. 107-22
    [PMID:11094985]
  10. Alvarez-Buylla ER, et al.
    MADS-box gene evolution beyond flowers: expression in pollen, endosperm, guard cells, roots and trichomes.
    Plant J., 2000. 24(4): p. 457-66
    [PMID:11115127]
  11. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
    [PMID:11118137]
  12. Michaels SD,Amasino RM
    Loss of FLOWERING LOCUS C activity eliminates the late-flowering phenotype of FRIGIDA and autonomous pathway mutations but not responsiveness to vernalization.
    Plant Cell, 2001. 13(4): p. 935-41
    [PMID:11283346]
  13. Lee H, et al.
    The Arabidopsis HOS1 gene negatively regulates cold signal transduction and encodes a RING finger protein that displays cold-regulated nucleo--cytoplasmic partitioning.
    Genes Dev., 2001. 15(7): p. 912-24
    [PMID:11297514]
  14. Ratcliffe OJ,Nadzan GC,Reuber TL,Riechmann JL
    Regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis by an FLC homologue.
    Plant Physiol., 2001. 126(1): p. 122-32
    [PMID:11351076]
  15. Scortecci KC,Michaels SD,Amasino RM
    Identification of a MADS-box gene, FLOWERING LOCUS M, that represses flowering.
    Plant J., 2001. 26(2): p. 229-36
    [PMID:11389763]
  16. Reeves PH,Coupland G
    Analysis of flowering time control in Arabidopsis by comparison of double and triple mutants.
    Plant Physiol., 2001. 126(3): p. 1085-91
    [PMID:11457959]
  17. Axeisson T,Shavorskaya O,Lagercrantz U
    Multiple flowering time QTLs within several Brassica species could be the result of duplicated copies of one ancestral gene.
    Genome, 2001. 44(5): p. 856-64
    [PMID:11681610]
  18. Gendall AR,Levy YY,Wilson A,Dean C
    The VERNALIZATION 2 gene mediates the epigenetic regulation of vernalization in Arabidopsis.
    Cell, 2001. 107(4): p. 525-35
    [PMID:11719192]
  19. Tadege M, et al.
    Control of flowering time by FLC orthologues in Brassica napus.
    Plant J., 2001. 28(5): p. 545-53
    [PMID:11849594]
  20. Rouse DT,Sheldon CC,Bagnall DJ,Peacock WJ,Dennis ES
    FLC, a repressor of flowering, is regulated by genes in different inductive pathways.
    Plant J., 2002. 29(2): p. 183-91
    [PMID:11851919]
  21. Liu J,Gilmour SJ,Thomashow MF,Van Nocker S
    Cold signalling associated with vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana does not involve CBF1 or abscisic acid.
    Physiol Plant, 2002. 114(1): p. 125-134
    [PMID:11982943]
  22. Levy YY,Mesnage S,Mylne JS,Gendall AR,Dean C
    Multiple roles of Arabidopsis VRN1 in vernalization and flowering time control.
    Science, 2002. 297(5579): p. 243-6
    [PMID:12114624]
  23. Hepworth SR,Valverde F,Ravenscroft D,Mouradov A,Coupland G
    Antagonistic regulation of flowering-time gene SOC1 by CONSTANS and FLC via separate promoter motifs.
    EMBO J., 2002. 21(16): p. 4327-37
    [PMID:12169635]
  24. Zhang H,van Nocker S
    The VERNALIZATION INDEPENDENCE 4 gene encodes a novel regulator of FLOWERING LOCUS C.
    Plant J., 2002. 31(5): p. 663-73
    [PMID:12207655]
  25. Sheldon CC,Conn AB,Dennis ES,Peacock WJ
    Different regulatory regions are required for the vernalization-induced repression of FLOWERING LOCUS C and for the epigenetic maintenance of repression.
    Plant Cell, 2002. 14(10): p. 2527-37
    [PMID:12368502]
  26. Reeves PH,Murtas G,Dash S,Coupland G
    early in short days 4, a mutation in Arabidopsis that causes early flowering and reduces the mRNA abundance of the floral repressor FLC.
    Development, 2002. 129(23): p. 5349-61
    [PMID:12403707]
  27. Schranz ME, et al.
    Characterization and effects of the replicated flowering time gene FLC in Brassica rapa.
    Genetics, 2002. 162(3): p. 1457-68
    [PMID:12454088]
  28. Genger RK,Peacock WJ,Dennis ES,Finnegan EJ
    Opposing effects of reduced DNA methylation on flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Planta, 2003. 216(3): p. 461-6
    [PMID:12520338]
  29. Bl
    A thermosensory pathway controlling flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Nat. Genet., 2003. 33(2): p. 168-71
    [PMID:12548286]
  30. Loudet O,Chaillou S,Camilleri C,Bouchez D,Daniel-Vedele F
    Bay-0 x Shahdara recombinant inbred line population: a powerful tool for the genetic dissection of complex traits in Arabidopsis.
    Theor. Appl. Genet., 2002. 104(6-7): p. 1173-1184
    [PMID:12582628]
  31. Michaels SD, et al.
    AGL24 acts as a promoter of flowering in Arabidopsis and is positively regulated by vernalization.
    Plant J., 2003. 33(5): p. 867-74
    [PMID:12609028]
  32. Halliday KJ,Salter MG,Thingnaes E,Whitelam GC
    Phytochrome control of flowering is temperature sensitive and correlates with expression of the floral integrator FT.
    Plant J., 2003. 33(5): p. 875-85
    [PMID:12609029]
  33. McKay JK,Richards JH,Mitchell-Olds T
    Genetics of drought adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana: I. Pleiotropy contributes to genetic correlations among ecological traits.
    Mol. Ecol., 2003. 12(5): p. 1137-51
    [PMID:12694278]
  34. Poduska B,Humphrey T,Redweik A,Grbić V
    The synergistic activation of FLOWERING LOCUS C by FRIGIDA and a new flowering gene AERIAL ROSETTE 1 underlies a novel morphology in Arabidopsis.
    Genetics, 2003. 163(4): p. 1457-65
    [PMID:12702689]
  35. Ratcliffe OJ,Kumimoto RW,Wong BJ,Riechmann JL
    Analysis of the Arabidopsis MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING gene family: MAF2 prevents vernalization by short periods of cold.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(5): p. 1159-69
    [PMID:12724541]
  36. Zhang H,Ransom C,Ludwig P,van Nocker S
    Genetic analysis of early flowering mutants in Arabidopsis defines a class of pleiotropic developmental regulator required for expression of the flowering-time switch flowering locus C.
    Genetics, 2003. 164(1): p. 347-58
    [PMID:12750345]
  37. Quesada V,Macknight R,Dean C,Simpson GG
    Autoregulation of FCA pre-mRNA processing controls Arabidopsis flowering time.
    EMBO J., 2003. 22(12): p. 3142-52
    [PMID:12805228]
  38. Gazzani S,Gendall AR,Lister C,Dean C
    Analysis of the molecular basis of flowering time variation in Arabidopsis accessions.
    Plant Physiol., 2003. 132(2): p. 1107-14
    [PMID:12805638]
  39. Simpson GG,Dijkwel PP,Quesada V,Henderson I,Dean C
    FY is an RNA 3' end-processing factor that interacts with FCA to control the Arabidopsis floral transition.
    Cell, 2003. 113(6): p. 777-87
    [PMID:12809608]
  40. Parenicová L, et al.
    Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(7): p. 1538-51
    [PMID:12837945]
  41. Noh YS,Amasino RM
    PIE1, an ISWI family gene, is required for FLC activation and floral repression in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(7): p. 1671-82
    [PMID:12837955]
  42. Michaels SD,He Y,Scortecci KC,Amasino RM
    Attenuation of FLOWERING LOCUS C activity as a mechanism for the evolution of summer-annual flowering behavior in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2003. 100(17): p. 10102-7
    [PMID:12904584]
  43. Moon J, et al.
    The SOC1 MADS-box gene integrates vernalization and gibberellin signals for flowering in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2003. 35(5): p. 613-23
    [PMID:12940954]
  44. Scortecci K,Michaels SD,Amasino RM
    Genetic interactions between FLM and other flowering-time genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2003. 52(5): p. 915-22
    [PMID:14558654]
  45. Schmid M, et al.
    Dissection of floral induction pathways using global expression analysis.
    Development, 2003. 130(24): p. 6001-12
    [PMID:14573523]
  46. He Y,Michaels SD,Amasino RM
    Regulation of flowering time by histone acetylation in Arabidopsis.
    Science, 2003. 302(5651): p. 1751-4
    [PMID:14593187]
  47. El-Din El-Assal S, et al.
    The role of cryptochrome 2 in flowering in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2003. 133(4): p. 1504-16
    [PMID:14605222]
  48. Becker A,Theissen G
    The major clades of MADS-box genes and their role in the development and evolution of flowering plants.
    Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 2003. 29(3): p. 464-89
    [PMID:14615187]
  49. Henderson IR,Shindo C,Dean C
    The need for winter in the switch to flowering.
    Annu. Rev. Genet., 2003. 37: p. 371-92
    [PMID:14616066]
  50. Spalding EP
    Light signaling.
    Plant Physiol., 2003. 133(4): p. 1417-9
    [PMID:14681523]
  51. Mart
    Salicylic acid regulates flowering time and links defence responses and reproductive development.
    Plant J., 2004. 37(2): p. 209-17
    [PMID:14690505]
  52. Sung S,Amasino RM
    Vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by the PHD finger protein VIN3.
    Nature, 2004. 427(6970): p. 159-64
    [PMID:14712276]
  53. Bastow R, et al.
    Vernalization requires epigenetic silencing of FLC by histone methylation.
    Nature, 2004. 427(6970): p. 164-7
    [PMID:14712277]
  54. Sung S,Amasino RM
    Vernalization and epigenetics: how plants remember winter.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol., 2004. 7(1): p. 4-10
    [PMID:14732435]
  55. Aus
    Regulation of flowering time by FVE, a retinoblastoma-associated protein.
    Nat. Genet., 2004. 36(2): p. 162-6
    [PMID:14745447]
  56. Kim HJ, et al.
    A genetic link between cold responses and flowering time through FVE in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Nat. Genet., 2004. 36(2): p. 167-71
    [PMID:14745450]
  57. Lim MH, et al.
    A new Arabidopsis gene, FLK, encodes an RNA binding protein with K homology motifs and regulates flowering time via FLOWERING LOCUS C.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16(3): p. 731-40
    [PMID:14973162]
  58. Michaels SD,Bezerra IC,Amasino RM
    FRIGIDA-related genes are required for the winter-annual habit in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2004. 101(9): p. 3281-5
    [PMID:14973192]
  59. Searle I,Coupland G
    Induction of flowering by seasonal changes in photoperiod.
    EMBO J., 2004. 23(6): p. 1217-22
    [PMID:15014450]
  60. Jack T
    Molecular and genetic mechanisms of floral control.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16 Suppl: p. S1-17
    [PMID:15020744]
  61. Boss PK,Bastow RM,Mylne JS,Dean C
    Multiple pathways in the decision to flower: enabling, promoting, and resetting.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16 Suppl: p. S18-31
    [PMID:15037730]
  62. Nakagawa M,Komeda Y
    Flowering of Arabidopsis cop1 mutants in darkness.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2004. 45(4): p. 398-406
    [PMID:15111714]
  63. Noh YS,Bizzell CM,Noh B,Schomburg FM,Amasino RM
    EARLY FLOWERING 5 acts as a floral repressor in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2004. 38(4): p. 664-72
    [PMID:15125772]
  64. Finnegan EJ,Sheldon CC,Jardinaud F,Peacock WJ,Dennis ES
    A cluster of Arabidopsis genes with a coordinate response to an environmental stimulus.
    Curr. Biol., 2004. 14(10): p. 911-6
    [PMID:15186749]
  65. Simpson GG, et al.
    RNA processing and Arabidopsis flowering time control.
    Biochem. Soc. Trans., 2004. 32(Pt 4): p. 565-6
    [PMID:15270676]
  66. Henderson IR,Dean C
    Control of Arabidopsis flowering: the chill before the bloom.
    Development, 2004. 131(16): p. 3829-38
    [PMID:15289433]
  67. Mockler TC, et al.
    Regulation of flowering time in Arabidopsis by K homology domain proteins.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2004. 101(34): p. 12759-64
    [PMID:15310842]
  68. Simpson GG
    The autonomous pathway: epigenetic and post-transcriptional gene regulation in the control of Arabidopsis flowering time.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol., 2004. 7(5): p. 570-4
    [PMID:15337100]
  69. Bezerra IC,Michaels SD,Schomburg FM,Amasino RM
    Lesions in the mRNA cap-binding gene ABA HYPERSENSITIVE 1 suppress FRIGIDA-mediated delayed flowering in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2004. 40(1): p. 112-9
    [PMID:15361145]
  70. Noh B, et al.
    Divergent roles of a pair of homologous jumonji/zinc-finger-class transcription factor proteins in the regulation of Arabidopsis flowering time.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16(10): p. 2601-13
    [PMID:15377760]
  71. He Y, et al.
    Nitric oxide represses the Arabidopsis floral transition.
    Science, 2004. 305(5692): p. 1968-71
    [PMID:15448272]
  72. Oh S,Zhang H,Ludwig P,van Nocker S
    A mechanism related to the yeast transcriptional regulator Paf1c is required for expression of the Arabidopsis FLC/MAF MADS box gene family.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16(11): p. 2940-53
    [PMID:15472079]
  73. Caicedo AL,Stinchcombe JR,Olsen KM,Schmitt J,Purugganan MD
    Epistatic interaction between Arabidopsis FRI and FLC flowering time genes generates a latitudinal cline in a life history trait.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2004. 101(44): p. 15670-5
    [PMID:15505218]
  74. He Y,Doyle MR,Amasino RM
    PAF1-complex-mediated histone methylation of FLOWERING LOCUS C chromatin is required for the vernalization-responsive, winter-annual habit in Arabidopsis.
    Genes Dev., 2004. 18(22): p. 2774-84
    [PMID:15520273]
  75. Liu J,He Y,Amasino R,Chen X
    siRNAs targeting an intronic transposon in the regulation of natural flowering behavior in Arabidopsis.
    Genes Dev., 2004. 18(23): p. 2873-8
    [PMID:15545622]
  76. Michaels SD,Himelblau E,Kim SY,Schomburg FM,Amasino RM
    Integration of flowering signals in winter-annual Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2005. 137(1): p. 149-56
    [PMID:15618421]
  77. He Y,Amasino RM
    Role of chromatin modification in flowering-time control.
    Trends Plant Sci., 2005. 10(1): p. 30-5
    [PMID:15642521]
  78. Doyle MR, et al.
    HUA2 is required for the expression of floral repressors in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2005. 41(3): p. 376-85
    [PMID:15659097]
  79. Moon J,Lee H,Kim M,Lee I
    Analysis of flowering pathway integrators in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2005. 46(2): p. 292-9
    [PMID:15695467]
  80. Werner JD, et al.
    Quantitative trait locus mapping and DNA array hybridization identify an FLM deletion as a cause for natural flowering-time variation.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2005. 102(7): p. 2460-5
    [PMID:15695584]
  81. Simpson GG
    NO flowering.
    Bioessays, 2005. 27(3): p. 239-41
    [PMID:15714562]
  82. Lin SI, et al.
    Differential regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS C expression by vernalization in cabbage and Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2005. 137(3): p. 1037-48
    [PMID:15734903]
  83. Zhu Y, et al.
    Characterization of a novel developmentally retarded mutant (drm1) associated with the autonomous flowering pathway in Arabidopsis.
    Cell Res., 2005. 15(2): p. 133-40
    [PMID:15740643]
  84. Shindo C, et al.
    Role of FRIGIDA and FLOWERING LOCUS C in determining variation in flowering time of Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2005. 138(2): p. 1163-73
    [PMID:15908596]
  85. Werner JD, et al.
    FRIGIDA-independent variation in flowering time of natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions.
    Genetics, 2005. 170(3): p. 1197-207
    [PMID:15911588]
  86. Salehi H,Ransom CB,Oraby HF,Seddighi Z,Sticklen MB
    Delay in flowering and increase in biomass of transgenic tobacco expressing the Arabidopsis floral repressor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C.
    J. Plant Physiol., 2005. 162(6): p. 711-7
    [PMID:16008094]
  87. Lehti-Shiu MD,Adamczyk BJ,Fernandez DE
    Expression of MADS-box genes during the embryonic phase in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2005. 58(1): p. 89-107
    [PMID:16028119]
  88. Quesada V,Dean C,Simpson GG
    Regulated RNA processing in the control of Arabidopsis flowering.
    Int. J. Dev. Biol., 2005. 49(5-6): p. 773-80
    [PMID:16096981]
  89. Lempe J, et al.
    Diversity of flowering responses in wild Arabidopsis thaliana strains.
    PLoS Genet., 2005. 1(1): p. 109-18
    [PMID:16103920]
  90. Deal RB,Kandasamy MK,McKinney EC,Meagher RB
    The nuclear actin-related protein ARP6 is a pleiotropic developmental regulator required for the maintenance of FLOWERING LOCUS C expression and repression of flowering in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(10): p. 2633-46
    [PMID:16141450]
  91. Choi K, et al.
    SUPPRESSOR OF FRIGIDA3 encodes a nuclear ACTIN-RELATED PROTEIN6 required for floral repression in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(10): p. 2647-60
    [PMID:16155178]
  92. Jean Finnegan E, et al.
    The downregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) expression in plants with low levels of DNA methylation and by vernalization occurs by distinct mechanisms.
    Plant J., 2005. 44(3): p. 420-32
    [PMID:16236152]
  93. Lee JH, et al.
    Conservation and divergence of FCA function between Arabidopsis and rice.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2005. 58(6): p. 823-38
    [PMID:16240176]
  94. Kim SY, et al.
    Establishment of the vernalization-responsive, winter-annual habit in Arabidopsis requires a putative histone H3 methyl transferase.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(12): p. 3301-10
    [PMID:16258034]
  95. Le Corre V
    Variation at two flowering time genes within and among populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: comparison with markers and traits.
    Mol. Ecol., 2005. 14(13): p. 4181-92
    [PMID:16262868]
  96. Schmitz RJ,Hong L,Michaels S,Amasino RM
    FRIGIDA-ESSENTIAL 1 interacts genetically with FRIGIDA and FRIGIDA-LIKE 1 to promote the winter-annual habit of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Development, 2005. 132(24): p. 5471-8
    [PMID:16291783]
  97. Zhao Z,Yu Y,Meyer D,Wu C,Shen WH
    Prevention of early flowering by expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C requires methylation of histone H3 K36.
    Nat. Cell Biol., 2005. 7(12): p. 1256-60
    [PMID:16299497]
  98. Sanyal A,Jackson SA
    Comparative genomics reveals expansion of the FLC region in the genus Arabidopsis.
    Mol. Genet. Genomics, 2006. 275(1): p. 26-34
    [PMID:16341708]
  99. Edwards KD, et al.
    FLOWERING LOCUS C mediates natural variation in the high-temperature response of the Arabidopsis circadian clock.
    Plant Cell, 2006. 18(3): p. 639-50
    [PMID:16473970]
  100. Martin-Trillo M, et al.
    EARLY IN SHORT DAYS 1 (ESD1) encodes ACTIN-RELATED PROTEIN 6 (AtARP6), a putative component of chromatin remodelling complexes that positively regulates FLC accumulation in Arabidopsis.
    Development, 2006. 133(7): p. 1241-52
    [PMID:16495307]
  101. Sheldon CC,Finnegan EJ,Dennis ES,Peacock WJ
    Quantitative effects of vernalization on FLC and SOC1 expression.
    Plant J., 2006. 45(6): p. 871-83
    [PMID:16507079]
  102. Wang J,Tian L,Lee HS,Chen ZJ
    Nonadditive regulation of FRI and FLC loci mediates flowering-time variation in Arabidopsis allopolyploids.
    Genetics, 2006. 173(2): p. 965-74
    [PMID:16547097]
  103. Mylne JS, et al.
    LHP1, the Arabidopsis homologue of HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1, is required for epigenetic silencing of FLC.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2006. 103(13): p. 5012-7
    [PMID:16549797]
  104. Bouveret R,Sch
    Regulation of flowering time by Arabidopsis MSI1.
    Development, 2006. 133(9): p. 1693-702
    [PMID:16554362]
  105. Searle I, et al.
    The transcription factor FLC confers a flowering response to vernalization by repressing meristem competence and systemic signaling in Arabidopsis.
    Genes Dev., 2006. 20(7): p. 898-912
    [PMID:16600915]
  106. Helliwell CA,Wood CC,Robertson M,James Peacock W,Dennis ES
    The Arabidopsis FLC protein interacts directly in vivo with SOC1 and FT chromatin and is part of a high-molecular-weight protein complex.
    Plant J., 2006. 46(2): p. 183-92
    [PMID:16623882]
  107. Peng M,Cui Y,Bi YM,Rothstein SJ
    AtMBD9: a protein with a methyl-CpG-binding domain regulates flowering time and shoot branching in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2006. 46(2): p. 282-96
    [PMID:16623890]
  108. Yang TJ, et al.
    Sequence-level analysis of the diploidization process in the triplicated FLOWERING LOCUS C region of Brassica rapa.
    Plant Cell, 2006. 18(6): p. 1339-47
    [PMID:16632644]
  109. Sung S, et al.
    Epigenetic maintenance of the vernalized state in Arabidopsis thaliana requires LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1.
    Nat. Genet., 2006. 38(6): p. 706-10
    [PMID:16682972]
  110. Guyomarc'h S, et al.
    MGOUN3: evidence for chromatin-mediated regulation of FLC expression.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2006. 57(9): p. 2111-9
    [PMID:16728410]
  111. Salathia N, et al.
    FLOWERING LOCUS C-dependent and -independent regulation of the circadian clock by the autonomous and vernalization pathways.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2006. 6: p. 10
    [PMID:16737527]
  112. Balasubramanian S,Sureshkumar S,Lempe J,Weigel D
    Potent induction of Arabidopsis thaliana flowering by elevated growth temperature.
    PLoS Genet., 2006. 2(7): p. e106
    [PMID:16839183]
  113. Fang Q,Xu Z,Song R
    Cloning, characterization and genetic engineering of FLC homolog in Thellungiella halophila.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2006. 347(3): p. 707-14
    [PMID:16844088]
  114. Wood CC, et al.
    The Arabidopsis thaliana vernalization response requires a polycomb-like protein complex that also includes VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE 3.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2006. 103(39): p. 14631-6
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