PlantTFDB
PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT5G03680.1
Common NameF17C15.100, PTL
Organism
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family Trihelix
Protein Properties Length: 591aa    MW: 66638.8 Da    PI: 7.0831
Description Trihelix family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT5G03680.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
1trihelix94.51e-29119204187
     trihelix   1 rWtkqevlaLiearremeerlrrgklkkplWeevskkm.rergferspkqCkekwenlnkrykkikegekkrtsessstcpyfdqlea 87 
                  rW++qe+l+L+e+r++++++++++++k+plW+evs+ m +e+g++rs k+C+ek+enl k+y+k+keg+ +r  ++ +++++f+qlea
  AT5G03680.1 119 RWPRQETLTLLEIRSRLDHKFKEANQKGPLWDEVSRIMsEEHGYQRSGKKCREKFENLYKYYRKTKEGKAGR--QDGKHYRFFRQLEA 204
                  8*************************************999*****************************98..55667*******85 PP

2trihelix66.94.1e-21421506182
     trihelix   1 rWtkqevlaLiearremeerlrr...gklkkplWeevskkmrergf.erspkqCkekwenlnkrykkikegekkrtsessstcpyf 82 
                  +W +qe+l+L+e+r++m++++++   g++++ lWee+++k+ + gf +rs+  Ckekwe++++ ++k+k++ +k+++++ss+c  +
  AT5G03680.1 421 CWGEQEILKLMEIRTSMDSTFQEilgGCSDEFLWEEIAAKLIQLGFdQRSALLCKEKWEWISNGMRKEKKQINKKRKDNSSSCGVY 506
                  7*********************98889*******************999********************99999989999998655 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PROSITE profilePS500906.98118177IPR017877Myb-like domain
PfamPF138372.6E-20119205No hitNo description
CDDcd122032.82E-19119184No hitNo description
PfamPF138372.3E-12420506No hitNo description
CDDcd122031.13E-19420489No hitNo description
PROSITE profilePS500906.028422479IPR017877Myb-like domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009909Biological Processregulation of flower development
GO:0010200Biological Processresponse to chitin
GO:0046621Biological Processnegative regulation of organ growth
GO:0048442Biological Processsepal development
GO:0048498Biological Processestablishment of petal orientation
GO:0090428Biological Processperianth development
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0042803Molecular Functionprotein homodimerization activity
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000229anatomyflower meristem
PO:0005021anatomysepal margin
PO:0009005anatomyroot
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009010anatomyseed
PO:0009031anatomysepal
PO:0009046anatomyflower
PO:0009049anatomyinflorescence
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020100anatomyhypocotyl
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007131developmental stageseedling development stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 591 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
MDQDQHPQYG IPELRQLMKG GGRTTTTTPS TSSHFPSDFF GFNLAPVQPP PHRLHQFTTD  60
QDMGFLPRGI HGLGGGSSTA GNNSNLNAST SGGGVGFSGF LDGGGFGSGV GGDGGGTGRW  120
PRQETLTLLE IRSRLDHKFK EANQKGPLWD EVSRIMSEEH GYQRSGKKCR EKFENLYKYY  180
RKTKEGKAGR QDGKHYRFFR QLEALYGDSN NLVSCPNHNT QFMSSALHGF HTQNPMNVTT  240
TTSNIHNVDS VHGFHQSLSL SNNYNSSELE LMTSSSEGND SSSRRKKRSW KAKIKEFIDT  300
NMKRLIERQD VWLEKLTKVI EDKEEQRMMK EEEWRKIEAA RIDKEHLFWA KERARMEARD  360
VAVIEALQYL TGKPLIKPLC SSPEERTNGN NEIRNNSETQ NENGSDQTMT NNVCVKGSSS  420
CWGEQEILKL MEIRTSMDST FQEILGGCSD EFLWEEIAAK LIQLGFDQRS ALLCKEKWEW  480
ISNGMRKEKK QINKKRKDNS SSCGVYYPRN EENPIYNNRE SGYNDNDPHQ INEQGNVGSS  540
TSNANANANV TTGNPSGAMA ASTNCFPFFM GDGDQNLWES YGLRLSKEEN Q
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
GEO1453576030.0
Genevisible250908_at0.0
Expression AtlasAT5G03680-
AtGenExpressAT5G03680-
ATTED-IIAT5G03680-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: First observed in the early-developing flower, in four zones between the initiating sepals and in their developing margins. Later detected in the margins of expanding sepals, petals and stamens, and in the leaf margins. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15269176}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Confined to flowers, at low levels. Also present in 7-days-old seedlings. Barely detectable in other tissues such as young seedlings, roots, stems, leaves and siliques (PubMed:15269176). Expressed in flower primordia, more precisely between newly arisen sepal primordia and also at the basal margins of developing sepals (PubMed:25697797). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15269176, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25697797}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRRecessive mutations are defective in organ initiation and orientation in the second whorl. This gene encodes a trihelix transcription factor whose expression is limited to margins of floral and vegetative organs. Overexpression and double mutant analyses suggest that this gene is involved in limiting lateral growth of organs.
UniProtTranscription factor that prevents growth. Regulates perianth architecture in flower, mostly in the second whorl, probably by suppressing growth between initiating sepals, ensuring that they remain separate, and by modulating organ shapes. Required for the establishment of auxin flux. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10572040, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15269176, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18080804}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. Data suggest that accurate temporal and spatial expression of PTL is essential for its proper functional implementation during plant development.
    [PMID: 18080804]
  2. restrains the size of the inter-sepal zone during early flower development
    [PMID: 22507233]
  3. Loss of PTL function disrupts auxin dynamics, allowing the role of auxin in promoting petal initiation to be revealed.
    [PMID: 23175631]
  4. PTL interacts with AKIN10 in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 25697797]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
SourceLink
PlantRegMapAT5G03680.1
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Expression within the newly arising sepals is repressed via the PINOID auxin-response pathway. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15269176}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
PlantRegMapRetrieveRetrieve
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G65620 (R), AT2G37630 (R)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT5G06070(A)
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT5G03680
Phenotype -- Disruption Phenotype ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtDISRUPTION PHENOTYPE: Disrupted perianth development, particularly petal initiation and orientation, sometimes leading to petal fusion. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10572040, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15269176}.
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT5G03680
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAY5557280.0AY555728.1 Arabidopsis thaliana trihelix transcription factor (PETAL LOSS) mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_195988.10.0Duplicated homeodomain-like superfamily protein
SwissprotQ9LZS00.0PTL_ARATH; Trihelix transcription factor PTL
TrEMBLA0A178U7740.0A0A178U774_ARATH; PTL
STRINGAT5G03680.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
MalvidsOGEM27672871
Representative plantOGRP8402716
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Griffith ME,da Silva Conceição A,Smyth DR
    PETAL LOSS gene regulates initiation and orientation of second whorl organs in the Arabidopsis flower.
    Development, 1999. 126(24): p. 5635-44
    [PMID:10572040]
  2. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
    [PMID:11118137]
  3. Takeda S,Matsumoto N,Okada K
    RABBIT EARS, encoding a SUPERMAN-like zinc finger protein, regulates petal development in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Development, 2004. 131(2): p. 425-34
    [PMID:14681191]
  4. Brewer PB, et al.
    PETAL LOSS, a trihelix transcription factor gene, regulates perianth architecture in the Arabidopsis flower.
    Development, 2004. 131(16): p. 4035-45
    [PMID:15269176]
  5. Jaramillo MA,Kramer EM
    Molecular evolution of the petal and stamen identity genes, APETALA3 and PISTILLATA, after petal loss in the Piperales.
    Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 2007. 44(2): p. 598-609
    [PMID:17576077]
  6. Libault M,Wan J,Czechowski T,Udvardi M,Stacey G
    Identification of 118 Arabidopsis transcription factor and 30 ubiquitin-ligase genes responding to chitin, a plant-defense elicitor.
    Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 2007. 20(8): p. 900-11
    [PMID:17722694]
  7. Li X,Qin G,Chen Z,Gu H,Qu LJ
    A gain-of-function mutation of transcriptional factor PTL results in curly leaves, dwarfism and male sterility by affecting auxin homeostasis.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2008. 66(3): p. 315-27
    [PMID:18080804]
  8. Xu B, et al.
    Arabidopsis genes AS1, AS2, and JAG negatively regulate boundary-specifying genes to promote sepal and petal development.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 146(2): p. 566-75
    [PMID:18156293]
  9. Irish VF
    The flowering of Arabidopsis flower development.
    Plant J., 2010. 61(6): p. 1014-28
    [PMID:20409275]
  10. Lampugnani ER,Kilinc A,Smyth DR
    PETAL LOSS is a boundary gene that inhibits growth between developing sepals in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2012. 71(5): p. 724-35
    [PMID:22507233]
  11. Lampugnani ER,Kilinc A,Smyth DR
    Auxin controls petal initiation in Arabidopsis.
    Development, 2013. 140(1): p. 185-94
    [PMID:23175631]
  12. Sauret-G
    JAGGED controls Arabidopsis petal growth and shape by interacting with a divergent polarity field.
    PLoS Biol., 2013. 11(4): p. e1001550
    [PMID:23653565]
  13. Kaplan-Levy RN,Quon T,O'Brien M,Sappl PG,Smyth DR
    Functional domains of the PETAL LOSS protein, a trihelix transcription factor that represses regional growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2014. 79(3): p. 477-91
    [PMID:24889508]
  14. O'Brien M,Kaplan-Levy RN,Quon T,Sappl PG,Smyth DR
    PETAL LOSS, a trihelix transcription factor that represses growth in Arabidopsis thaliana, binds the energy-sensing SnRK1 kinase AKIN10.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2015. 66(9): p. 2475-85
    [PMID:25697797]
  15. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
    [PMID:25750178]
  16. Quon T,Lampugnani ER,Smyth DR
    PETAL LOSS and ROXY1 Interact to Limit Growth Within and between Sepals But to Promote Petal Initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Front Plant Sci, 2017. 8: p. 152
    [PMID:28228771]