PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT4G24540.1
Common NameAGL24, F22K18.260
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Protein Properties Length: 220aa    MW: 25063.7 Da    PI: 8.4712
Description AGAMOUS-like 24
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT4G24540.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
       SRF-TF  1 krienksnrqvtfskRrngilKKAeELSvLCdaevaviifsstgklyeyss 51
                 k+i+n + rqvtfskRr gi+KKA ELSvLCda+va+iifs tgkl+e+ss
                 68***********************************************96 PP

        K-box  20 elakLkkeienLqreqRhllGedLesLslkeLqqLeqqLekslkkiRskKnellleqieelqkkekelqeenkaLrkkle 99 
                  +l++L ke+e   +++R+l GedL+ L+l+eLq+Le+ Le++l+++ +kK e +++qi  l k+  el +enk+Lr kle
                  6899*************************************************************************997 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PROSITE profilePS5006629.59161IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
SMARTSM004322.4E-37160IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
CDDcd002654.58E-36269No hitNo description
PRINTSPR004046.0E-26323IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
SuperFamilySSF554558.11E-30371IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PROSITE patternPS003500357IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PfamPF003197.9E-251057IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004046.0E-262338IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004046.0E-263859IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PROSITE profilePS5129713.20287177IPR002487Transcription factor, K-box
PfamPF014861.8E-1792171IPR002487Transcription factor, K-box
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0000060Biological Processprotein import into nucleus, translocation
GO:0009739Biological Processresponse to gibberellin
GO:0010076Biological Processmaintenance of floral meristem identity
GO:0010077Biological Processmaintenance of inflorescence meristem identity
GO:0010220Biological Processpositive regulation of vernalization response
GO:0010582Biological Processfloral meristem determinacy
GO:0030154Biological Processcell differentiation
GO:0045893Biological Processpositive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0048438Biological Processfloral whorl development
GO:0048510Biological Processregulation of timing of transition from vegetative to reproductive phase
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0005737Cellular Componentcytoplasm
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0042803Molecular Functionprotein homodimerization activity
GO:0043565Molecular Functionsequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0046982Molecular Functionprotein heterodimerization activity
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0008019anatomyleaf lamina base
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007064developmental stageLP.12 twelve leaves visible stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 220 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT4G24540-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: During vegetative phase, expressed in the entire shoot apical meristem and in emerging leaf primordia. During floral transition, gradually detectable in the transitional shoot apex and young cauline leaves. Detected in the inflorescence meristem. Present throughout the tunica (superficial layers) of the floral meristem during early stages of flower development. Later disappears prior to emergence of sepal primordia. At later stages of floral development, weakly expressed in the distal parts of stamens and carpels. Then restricted to pollen and the adaxial surface of the gynoecium. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12451184, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14716314, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19656343}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Mostly expressed in shoot apical meristems, including floral meristems. Also detected in stems, seedlings, leaves, flowers and siliques, and, to a lower extent, in roots. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12451184, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12609028, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12881501, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19656343}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes a MADS-box protein involved in flowering. Regulates the expression of SOC1 and is also upregulated by SOC1. Binds with IMK3 kinase domain. Phosphorylated by IMK3; likely to be a target for IMK3 kinase domain.
UniProtTranscription activator that mediates floral transition in response to vernalization. Promotes inflorescence fate in apical meristems. Acts in a dosage-dependent manner. Probably involved in the transduction of RLK-mediated signaling (e.g. IMK3 pathway). Together with AP1 and SVP, controls the identity of the floral meristem and regulates expression of class B, C and E genes. When associated with SOC1, mediates effect of gibberellins on flowering under short-day conditions, and regulates the expression of LEAFY (LFY), which links floral induction and floral development. Confers inflorescence characteristics to floral primordia and early flowering. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12451184, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12609028, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12881501, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14716314, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16679456, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18339670, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18466303, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18694458, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19656343}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. The data provides genetic evidence for the role of AP1 in these interactions by showing that the floral phenotype in the ap1 agl24 svp triple mutant is significantly enhanced.
    [PMID: 16679456]
  2. once AP1 is activated during the floral transition, it acts partly as a master repressor in floral meristems by directly suppressing the expression of flowering time genes SVP, AGL24 and SOC1, preventing continuation of the shoot developmental program
    [PMID: 17428825]
  3. during floral transition, a positive-feedback loop conferred by direct transcriptional regulation between AGL24 and SOC1 at the shoot apex integrates flowering signals
    [PMID: 18339670]
  4. Complementation tests showed that rice OsMADS22 and OsMADS47 are unable to reverse the flowering-time phenotypes of the svp and agl24 mutants in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 18453531]
  5. Interaction with AGL24 relocates SOC1 to the nucleus, where SOC1 regulates leafy expression by binding to the LFY promoter.
    [PMID: 18466303]
  6. AP1, AGL24 and SVP redundantly control floral meristem identity. Ectopic AGL24 and SVP expression promotes floral indeterminacy.
    [PMID: 18694458]
  7. AGL24, AP1 and SVP directly and redundantly regulate class B, C and E floral homeotic genes.
    [PMID: 19656343]
  8. Data show that BOP1/2 function distinctly from LFY to upregulate AP1 in floral primordia and that all three activities converge to down-regulate flowering-time regulators including AGAMOUS-LIKE24 in stage 2 floral meristems.
    [PMID: 20626659]
  9. Flowering is controlled by AGL24 partly independently of SOC1 and FUL.
    [PMID: 22902690]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Induced by vernalization in a FLC-independent manner. Repressed by the floral homeotic genes AP1, LFY and SEP3 in emerging floral meristems to establish a floral identity and prevent inflorescence fate. Up-regulated at the shoot apex by SOC1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12609028, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14716314, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17428825, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18339670, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18694458}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G24260 (R), AT1G69120 (R), AT5G61850 (R)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G24260(R), AT2G45660(A), AT4G18960(R), AT5G61850(A)
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT4G24540, AT4G37940, AT5G13790, AT5G15800, AT5G60910, AT1G24260, AT1G26310, AT1G69120
IntActSearch O82794
Phenotype -- Disruption Phenotype ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtDISRUPTION PHENOTYPE: Delayed flowering. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12451184}.
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT4G24540
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAF0051580.0AF005158.1 Arabidopsis thaliana MADS-box Protein (AGL24) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankBT0251710.0BT025171.1 Arabidopsis thaliana At4g24540 mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_194185.11e-156AGAMOUS-like 24
SwissprotO827941e-157AGL24_ARATH; MADS-box protein AGL24
TrEMBLA0A178UV291e-155A0A178UV29_ARATH; AGL24
STRINGAT4G24540.11e-156(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP1617761
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Pelaz S,Gustafson-Brown C,Kohalmi SE,Crosby WL,Yanofsky MF
    APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 interact to promote flower development.
    Plant J., 2001. 26(4): p. 385-94
  3. Yu H,Xu Y,Tan EL,Kumar PP
    AGAMOUS-LIKE 24, a dosage-dependent mediator of the flowering signals.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2002. 99(25): p. 16336-41
  4. Michaels SD, et al.
    AGL24 acts as a promoter of flowering in Arabidopsis and is positively regulated by vernalization.
    Plant J., 2003. 33(5): p. 867-74
  5. Parenicov√° L, et al.
    Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(7): p. 1538-51
  6. Fujita H, et al.
    An Arabidopsis MADS-box protein, AGL24, is specifically bound to and phosphorylated by meristematic receptor-like kinase (MRLK).
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2003. 44(7): p. 735-42
  7. Yu H,Ito T,Wellmer F,Meyerowitz EM
    Repression of AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 is a crucial step in promoting flower development.
    Nat. Genet., 2004. 36(2): p. 157-61
  8. Fornara F, et al.
    Functional characterization of OsMADS18, a member of the AP1/SQUA subfamily of MADS box genes.
    Plant Physiol., 2004. 135(4): p. 2207-19
  9. de Folter S, et al.
    Comprehensive interaction map of the Arabidopsis MADS Box transcription factors.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(5): p. 1424-33
  10. Tooke F,Ordidge M,Chiurugwi T,Battey N
    Mechanisms and function of flower and inflorescence reversion.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2005. 56(420): p. 2587-99
  11. Gregis V,Sessa A,Colombo L,Kater MM
    AGL24, SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE, and APETALA1 redundantly control AGAMOUS during early stages of flower development in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2006. 18(6): p. 1373-82
  12. Trevaskis B, et al.
    Short vegetative phase-like MADS-box genes inhibit floral meristem identity in barley.
    Plant Physiol., 2007. 143(1): p. 225-35
  13. Bernier G,P
    A physiological overview of the genetics of flowering time control.
    Plant Biotechnol. J., 2005. 3(1): p. 3-16
  14. He C,Saedler H
    Hormonal control of the inflated calyx syndrome, a morphological novelty, in Physalis.
    Plant J., 2007. 49(5): p. 935-46
  15. Yadav SR,Prasad K,Vijayraghavan U
    Divergent regulatory OsMADS2 functions control size, shape and differentiation of the highly derived rice floret second-whorl organ.
    Genetics, 2007. 176(1): p. 283-94
  16. Liu C, et al.
    Specification of Arabidopsis floral meristem identity by repression of flowering time genes.
    Development, 2007. 134(10): p. 1901-10
  17. Liu C, et al.
    Direct interaction of AGL24 and SOC1 integrates flowering signals in Arabidopsis.
    Development, 2008. 135(8): p. 1481-91
  18. Alexandre CM,Hennig L
    FLC or not FLC: the other side of vernalization.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2008. 59(6): p. 1127-35
  19. Fornara F,Gregis V,Pelucchi N,Colombo L,Kater M
    The rice StMADS11-like genes OsMADS22 and OsMADS47 cause floral reversions in Arabidopsis without complementing the svp and agl24 mutants.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2008. 59(8): p. 2181-90
  20. Lee J,Oh M,Park H,Lee I
    SOC1 translocated to the nucleus by interaction with AGL24 directly regulates leafy.
    Plant J., 2008. 55(5): p. 832-43
  21. Gregis V,Sessa A,Colombo L,Kater MM
    AGAMOUS-LIKE24 and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE determine floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2008. 56(6): p. 891-902
  22. Liu C,Xi W,Shen L,Tan C,Yu H
    Regulation of floral patterning by flowering time genes.
    Dev. Cell, 2009. 16(5): p. 711-22
  23. Bertoni G
    PUCHI and floral meristem identity.
    Plant Cell, 2009. 21(5): p. 1327
  24. Karim MR,Hirota A,Kwiatkowska D,Tasaka M,Aida M
    A role for Arabidopsis PUCHI in floral meristem identity and bract suppression.
    Plant Cell, 2009. 21(5): p. 1360-72
  25. Gregis V,Sessa A,Dorca-Fornell C,Kater MM
    The Arabidopsis floral meristem identity genes AP1, AGL24 and SVP directly repress class B and C floral homeotic genes.
    Plant J., 2009. 60(4): p. 626-37
  26. Horvath DP,Sung S,Kim D,Chao W,Anderson J
    Characterization, expression and function of DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX genes from leafy spurge.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2010. 73(1-2): p. 169-79
  27. McCullough E, et al.
    Photoperiod-dependent floral reversion in the natural allopolyploid Arabidopsis suecica.
    New Phytol., 2010. 186(1): p. 239-50
  28. Wang Y,Liu C,Yang D,Yu H,Liou YC
    Pin1At encoding a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase regulates flowering time in Arabidopsis.
    Mol. Cell, 2010. 37(1): p. 112-22
  29. Irish VF
    The flowering of Arabidopsis flower development.
    Plant J., 2010. 61(6): p. 1014-28
  30. Xu M, et al.
    Arabidopsis BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 and 2 promote floral meristem fate and determinacy in a previously undefined pathway targeting APETALA1 and AGAMOUS-LIKE24.
    Plant J., 2010. 63(6): p. 974-89
  31. Smith HM,Ung N,Lal S,Courtier J
    Specification of reproductive meristems requires the combined function of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS and floral integrators FLOWERING LOCUS T and FD during Arabidopsis inflorescence development.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2011. 62(2): p. 583-93
  32. Yamane H, et al.
    Expressional regulation of PpDAM5 and PpDAM6, peach (Prunus persica) dormancy-associated MADS-box genes, by low temperature and dormancy-breaking reagent treatment.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2011. 62(10): p. 3481-8
  33. Arabidopsis Interactome Mapping Consortium
    Evidence for network evolution in an Arabidopsis interactome map.
    Science, 2011. 333(6042): p. 601-7
  34. Grandi V,Gregis V,Kater MM
    Uncovering genetic and molecular interactions among floral meristem identity genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2012. 69(5): p. 881-93
  35. Lee JH,Park SH,Ahn JH
    Functional conservation and diversification between rice OsMADS22/OsMADS55 and Arabidopsis SVP proteins.
    Plant Sci., 2012. 185-186: p. 97-104
  36. Thouet J,Quinet M,Lutts S,Kinet JM,P
    Repression of floral meristem fate is crucial in shaping tomato inflorescence.
    PLoS ONE, 2012. 7(2): p. e31096
  37. Torti S,Fornara F
    AGL24 acts in concert with SOC1 and FUL during Arabidopsis floral transition.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2012. 7(10): p. 1251-4
  38. M
    The flowering repressor SVP underlies a novel Arabidopsis thaliana QTL interacting with the genetic background.
    PLoS Genet., 2013. 9(1): p. e1003289
  39. Ding L,Wang Y,Yu H
    Overexpression of DOSOC1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis SOC1, promotes flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Parya Smile.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2013. 54(4): p. 595-608
  40. Liu C, et al.
    A conserved genetic pathway determines inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis and rice.
    Dev. Cell, 2013. 24(6): p. 612-22
  41. Ramamoorthy R,Phua EE,Lim SH,Tan HT,Kumar PP
    Identification and characterization of RcMADS1, an AGL24 ortholog from the holoparasitic plant Rafflesia cantleyi Solms-Laubach (Rafflesiaceae).
    PLoS ONE, 2013. 8(6): p. e67243
  42. Lei HJ, et al.
    Identification and characterization of FaSOC1, a homolog of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 from strawberry.
    Gene, 2013. 531(2): p. 158-67
  43. Fernandez DE, et al.
    The MADS-Domain Factors AGAMOUS-LIKE15 and AGAMOUS-LIKE18, along with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE and AGAMOUS-LIKE24, Are Necessary to Block Floral Gene Expression during the Vegetative Phase.
    Plant Physiol., 2014. 165(4): p. 1591-1603
  44. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  45. Wells CE,Vendramin E,Jimenez Tarodo S,Verde I,Bielenberg DG
    A genome-wide analysis of MADS-box genes in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].
    BMC Plant Biol., 2015. 15: p. 41
  46. Sacharowski SP, et al.
    SWP73 Subunits of Arabidopsis SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes Play Distinct Roles in Leaf and Flower Development.
    Plant Cell, 2015. 27(7): p. 1889-906
  47. Sun LM,Zhang JZ,Hu CG
    Characterization and Expression Analysis of PtAGL24, a SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE/AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 (SVP/AGL24)-Type MADS-Box Gene from Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.).
    Front Plant Sci, 2016. 7: p. 823