PlantTFDB
PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT4G16110.1
Common NameARP5, ARR2, dl4095w, FCAALL.297, RR2
Organism
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family ARR-B
Protein Properties Length: 664aa    MW: 72578.1 Da    PI: 6.6334
Description response regulator 2
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT4G16110.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
1G2-like90.91.1e-28216269155
      G2-like   1 kprlrWtpeLHerFveaveqLGGsekAtPktilelmkvkgLtlehvkSHLQkYRl 55 
                  kpr++W+ eLH++Fv av+qL G +kA+Pk+ile+m+v+gLt+e+v+SHLQkYR+
  AT4G16110.1 216 KPRVVWSVELHQQFVAAVNQL-GVDKAVPKKILEMMNVPGLTRENVASHLQKYRI 269
                  79*******************.********************************7 PP

2Response_reg77.25.8e-26301381109
                   EEEESSSHHHHHHHHHHHHHTTCEEEEEESSHHHHHHHHHHHH..ESEEEEESSCTTSEHHHHHHHHHHHTTTSEEEEEESTTTHHHHHHHHHTTES CS
  Response_reg   1 vlivdDeplvrellrqalekegyeevaeaddgeealellkekd..pDlillDiempgmdGlellkeireeepklpiivvtahgeeedalealkaGak 95 
                   vl+vdD+p+ +++l+++l    y +v+ +  +e+al ll++++  +D+++ D+ mp+mdG++ll++   e  +lp+i+++a ++++ +l+ +  Ga 
   AT4G16110.1  30 VLVVDDDPTCLMILERMLMTCLY-RVTKCNRAESALSLLRKNKngFDIVISDVHMPDMDGFKLLEHVGLEM-DLPVIMMSADDSKSVVLKGVTHGAV 124
                   89*********************.***************999889**********************6644.8************************ PP

                   EEEESS--HHHHHH CS
  Response_reg  96 dflsKpfdpeelvk 109
                   d+l Kp+ +e+l +
   AT4G16110.1 125 DYLIKPVRIEALKN 138
                   **********9986 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PIRSFPIRSF0363923.7E-20211656IPR017053Response regulator B-type, plant
SuperFamilySSF521729.39E-3527151IPR011006CheY-like superfamily
Gene3DG3DSA:3.40.50.23001.3E-4027177No hitNo description
SMARTSM004486.5E-3028140IPR001789Signal transduction response regulator, receiver domain
PROSITE profilePS5011041.14929144IPR001789Signal transduction response regulator, receiver domain
PfamPF000721.5E-2230138IPR001789Signal transduction response regulator, receiver domain
CDDcd001561.14E-2631143No hitNo description
PROSITE profilePS5129411.323213272IPR017930Myb domain
SuperFamilySSF466897.17E-20214273IPR009057Homeodomain-like
Gene3DG3DSA:1.10.10.606.1E-30215274IPR009057Homeodomain-like
TIGRFAMsTIGR015572.8E-24216269IPR006447Myb domain, plants
PfamPF002491.0E-8218268IPR001005SANT/Myb domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009736Biological Processcytokinin-activated signaling pathway
GO:0009873Biological Processethylene-activated signaling pathway
GO:0010082Biological Processregulation of root meristem growth
GO:0010119Biological Processregulation of stomatal movement
GO:0010150Biological Processleaf senescence
GO:0071368Biological Processcellular response to cytokinin stimulus
GO:0080113Biological Processregulation of seed growth
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0000156Molecular Functionphosphorelay response regulator activity
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0005515Molecular Functionprotein binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000025anatomyroot tip
PO:0000036anatomyleaf vascular system
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000282anatomytrichome
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0005660anatomyhydathode
PO:0006079anatomyshoot system meristem
PO:0006339anatomyjuvenile vascular leaf
PO:0008019anatomyleaf lamina base
PO:0009005anatomyroot
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009010anatomyseed
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009029anatomystamen
PO:0009030anatomycarpel
PO:0009031anatomysepal
PO:0009032anatomypetal
PO:0009046anatomyflower
PO:0009047anatomystem
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020030anatomycotyledon
PO:0020038anatomypetiole
PO:0020100anatomyhypocotyl
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0025195anatomypollen tube cell
PO:0025281anatomypollen
PO:0001016developmental stageL mature pollen stage
PO:0001017developmental stageM germinated pollen stage
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007064developmental stageLP.12 twelve leaves visible stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007098developmental stageLP.02 two leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007123developmental stageLP.06 six leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 664 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
MVNPGHGRGP DSGTAAGGSN SDPFPANLRV LVVDDDPTCL MILERMLMTC LYRVTKCNRA  60
ESALSLLRKN KNGFDIVISD VHMPDMDGFK LLEHVGLEMD LPVIMMSADD SKSVVLKGVT  120
HGAVDYLIKP VRIEALKNIW QHVVRKKRNE WNVSEHSGGS IEDTGGDRDR QQQHREDADN  180
NSSSVNEGNG RSSRKRKEEE VDDQGDDKED SSSLKKPRVV WSVELHQQFV AAVNQLGVDK  240
AVPKKILEMM NVPGLTRENV ASHLQKYRIY LRRLGGVSQH QGNMNHSFMT GQDQSFGPLS  300
SLNGFDLQSL AVTGQLPPQS LAQLQAAGLG RPTLAKPGMS VSPLVDQRSI FNFENPKIRF  360
GDGHGQTMNN GNLLHGVPTG SHMRLRPGQN VQSSGMMLPV ADQLPRGGPS MLPSLGQQPI  420
LSSSVSRRSD LTGALAVRNS IPETNSRVLP TTHSVFNNFP ADLPRSSFPL ASAPGISVPV  480
SVSYQEEVNS SDAKGGSSAA TAGFGNPSYD IFNDFPQHQQ HNKNISNKLN DWDLRNMGLV  540
FSSNQDAATA TATAAFSTSE AYSSSSTQRK RRETDATVVG EHGQNLQSPS RNLYHLNHVF  600
MDGGSVRVKS ERVAETVTCP PANTLFHEQY NQEDLMSAFL KQEGIPSVDN EFEFDGYSID  660
NIQV
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
Structure
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
1irz_A7e-22212274163ARR10-B
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.219550.0floral meristem| seed| vegetative tissue
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Genevisible245477_at0.0
Expression AtlasAT4G16110-
AtGenExpressAT4G16110-
ATTED-IIAT4G16110-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Detected in the whole plant. Predominantly expressed in pollen. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11370868, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15173562, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9891419}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes a pollen-specific transcription factor involved in the expression of nuclear genes for components of mitochondrial complex I in Arabidopsis. Acts in concert with other type-B ARRs in the cytokinin signaling pathway. AHK3 mediates cytokinin-induced phosphorylation of ARR2 on the Asp-80 residue. This phosphorylation plays a positive role of ARR2 in cytokinin-mediated control of leaf longevity.
UniProtTranscriptional activator that binds specifically to the DNA sequence 5'-[AG]GATT-3'. Functions as a response regulator involved in His-to-Asp phosphorelay signal transduction system. Phosphorylation of the Asp residue in the receiver domain activates the ability of the protein to promote the transcription of target genes. Could directly activate some type-A response regulators in response to cytokinins. Involved in the expression of nuclear genes for components of mitochondrial complex I. Promotes cytokinin-mediated leaf longevity. Involved in the ethylene signaling pathway in an ETR1-dependent manner and in the cytokinin signaling pathway. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11370868, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11574878, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15282545, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16407152}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. identification of the Arabidopsis response regulator 2 (ARR2) as a signalling component functioning downstream of ETR1 in ethylene signal transduction [ARR2]
    [PMID: 15282545]
  2. Transgenic overexpression of wild-type, but not an unphosphorylatable mutant ARR2, led to delayed senescence of leaves.
    [PMID: 16407152]
  3. Results show that cytokinins modulate salicylic acid signaling to augment resistance against Pst, a process in which the interaction between NPR1/TGA3 and ARR2 is important.
    [PMID: 20708590]
  4. Cytokinin facilitates the degradation of ARR2 protein.
    [PMID: 22050482]
  5. Cytokinin-facilitated degradation of ARR2 must be appreciated as a post-translational event important for regulating cytokinin signaling intensity.
    [PMID: 22751310]
  6. Data indicate that one of the immediate early cytokinin response genes is ARR6, which has been shown to be a direct target gene of ARR1, ARR2 and other type-B ARRs.
    [PMID: 23620480]
  7. Data suggest that shoot removal induces the quantitative and qualitative development of chloroplasts in roots, with cytokinin signaling via RESPONSE REGULATOR (ARR)-ARR1 and ARR12 functioning downstream of wounding signaling to up-regulate genes associated with chloroplast development.
    [PMID: 28193764]
  8. ARR2 directly activates the expression of PRX33 and PRX34, which are required for SA- and PAMP-triggered ROS production. Thus, the CK signaling pathway regulates ROS homeostasis in guard cells, which leads to enhanced stomatal immunity and plant resistance to bacteria.
    [PMID: 28254779]
  9. Cytokinins promote actin bundling and the resultant second rapid cell elongation through activating the signaling pathway involving the cytokinin receptors ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE3 (AHK3) and AHK4 and the B-type transcription factor ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR2.
    [PMID: 30185441]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
MP00054PBM25215497Download
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
SourceLink
PlantRegMapAT4G16110.1
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
PlantRegMapRetrieveRetrieve
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT3G23240(A), AT5G62920(A)
Regulation -- Hormone ? help Back to Top
Source Hormone
AHDcytokinin, ethylene
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
IntActSearch Q9ZWJ9
Phenotype -- Disruption Phenotype ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtDISRUPTION PHENOTYPE: Retarded growth and development, and early flowering. Reduced responses to ethylene and cytokinin. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15282545}.
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT4G16110
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAK1757370.0AK175737.1 Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypothetical protein, complete cds, clone: RAFL22-28-G07.
GenBankAK1759590.0AK175959.1 Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypothetical protein, complete cds, clone: RAFL22-64-J02.
GenBankAK1766140.0AK176614.1 Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypothetical protein, complete cds, clone: RAFL25-13-O13.
GenBankDQ4735190.0DQ473519.1 Arabidopsis thaliana ARR2 (ARR2) mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_193346.50.0response regulator 2
SwissprotQ9ZWJ90.0ARR2_ARATH; Two-component response regulator ARR2
TrEMBLA0A178USW70.0A0A178USW7_ARATH; Two-component response regulator
STRINGAT4G16110.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
MalvidsOGEM24032773
Representative plantOGRP29217120
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
    [PMID:11118137]
  2. Sakai H,Aoyama T,Oka A
    Arabidopsis ARR1 and ARR2 response regulators operate as transcriptional activators.
    Plant J., 2000. 24(6): p. 703-11
    [PMID:11135105]
  3. Suzuki T,Sakurai K,Ueguchi C,Mizuno T
    Two types of putative nuclear factors that physically interact with histidine-containing phosphotransfer (Hpt) domains, signaling mediators in His-to-Asp phosphorelay, in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2001. 42(1): p. 37-45
    [PMID:11158442]
  4. Lohrmann J, et al.
    The response regulator ARR2: a pollen-specific transcription factor involved in the expression of nuclear genes for components of mitochondrial complex I in Arabidopsis.
    Mol. Genet. Genomics, 2001. 265(1): p. 2-13
    [PMID:11370868]
  5. Hwang I,Sheen J
    Two-component circuitry in Arabidopsis cytokinin signal transduction.
    Nature, 2001. 413(6854): p. 383-9
    [PMID:11574878]
  6. Haberer G,Kieber JJ
    Cytokinins. New insights into a classic phytohormone.
    Plant Physiol., 2002. 128(2): p. 354-62
    [PMID:11842139]
  7. Hwang I,Chen HC,Sheen J
    Two-component signal transduction pathways in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2002. 129(2): p. 500-15
    [PMID:12068096]
  8. Che P,Gingerich DJ,Lall S,Howell SH
    Global and hormone-induced gene expression changes during shoot development in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2002. 14(11): p. 2771-85
    [PMID:12417700]
  9. Imamura A,Kiba T,Tajima Y,Yamashino T,Mizuno T
    In vivo and in vitro characterization of the ARR11 response regulator implicated in the His-to-Asp phosphorelay signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2003. 44(2): p. 122-31
    [PMID:12610214]
  10. Rashotte AM,Carson SD,To JP,Kieber JJ
    Expression profiling of cytokinin action in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2003. 132(4): p. 1998-2011
    [PMID:12913156]
  11. Tajima Y, et al.
    Comparative studies on the type-B response regulators revealing their distinctive properties in the His-to-Asp phosphorelay signal transduction of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2004. 45(1): p. 28-39
    [PMID:14749483]
  12. Tanaka Y,Suzuki T,Yamashino T,Mizuno T
    Comparative studies of the AHP histidine-containing phosphotransmitters implicated in His-to-Asp phosphorelay in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2004. 68(2): p. 462-5
    [PMID:14981318]
  13. Mason MG,Li J,Mathews DE,Kieber JJ,Schaller GE
    Type-B response regulators display overlapping expression patterns in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2004. 135(2): p. 927-37
    [PMID:15173562]
  14. Hass C, et al.
    The response regulator 2 mediates ethylene signalling and hormone signal integration in Arabidopsis.
    EMBO J., 2004. 23(16): p. 3290-302
    [PMID:15282545]
  15. Mason MG, et al.
    Multiple type-B response regulators mediate cytokinin signal transduction in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(11): p. 3007-18
    [PMID:16227453]
  16. Kim HJ, et al.
    Cytokinin-mediated control of leaf longevity by AHK3 through phosphorylation of ARR2 in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2006. 103(3): p. 814-9
    [PMID:16407152]
  17. Desikan R, et al.
    Ethylene-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis occurs via AtrbohF-mediated hydrogen peroxide synthesis.
    Plant J., 2006. 47(6): p. 907-16
    [PMID:16961732]
  18. Dortay H,Mehnert N,B
    Analysis of protein interactions within the cytokinin-signaling pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    FEBS J., 2006. 273(20): p. 4631-44
    [PMID:16965536]
  19. Ishida K,Yamashino T,Yokoyama A,Mizuno T
    Three type-B response regulators, ARR1, ARR10 and ARR12, play essential but redundant roles in cytokinin signal transduction throughout the life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2008. 49(1): p. 47-57
    [PMID:18037673]
  20. Dortay H, et al.
    Toward an interaction map of the two-component signaling pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    J. Proteome Res., 2008. 7(9): p. 3649-60
    [PMID:18642946]
  21. Wang Y, et al.
    Transcriptome analyses show changes in gene expression to accompany pollen germination and tube growth in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 148(3): p. 1201-11
    [PMID:18775970]
  22. Che P,Lall S,Howell SH
    Acquiring competence for shoot development in Arabidopsis: ARR2 directly targets A-type ARR genes that are differentially activated by CIM preincubation.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2008. 3(2): p. 99-101
    [PMID:19704721]
  23. Choi J, et al.
    The cytokinin-activated transcription factor ARR2 promotes plant immunity via TGA3/NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling in Arabidopsis.
    Dev. Cell, 2010. 19(2): p. 284-95
    [PMID:20708590]
  24. Wang Y,Elhiti M,Hebelstrup KH,Hill RD,Stasolla C
    Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis.
    Plant Physiol. Biochem., 2011. 49(10): p. 1108-16
    [PMID:21741261]
  25. Kim K, et al.
    Cytokinin-facilitated proteolysis of ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR 2 attenuates signaling output in two-component circuitry.
    Plant J., 2012. 69(6): p. 934-45
    [PMID:22050482]
  26. Choi J, et al.
    Functional identification of OsHk6 as a homotypic cytokinin receptor in rice with preferential affinity for iP.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2012. 53(7): p. 1334-43
    [PMID:22642989]
  27. Kim K,Hwang I
    Attenuation of cytokinin signaling via proteolysis of a type-B response regulator.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2012. 7(7): p. 756-9
    [PMID:22751310]
  28. Hill K, et al.
    Functional characterization of type-B response regulators in the Arabidopsis cytokinin response.
    Plant Physiol., 2013. 162(1): p. 212-24
    [PMID:23482873]
  29. Ramireddy E,Brenner WG,Pfeifer A,Heyl A,Schm
    In planta analysis of a cis-regulatory cytokinin response motif in Arabidopsis and identification of a novel enhancer sequence.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2013. 54(7): p. 1079-92
    [PMID:23620480]
  30. Zwack PJ,Rashotte AM
    Cytokinin inhibition of leaf senescence.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2013. 8(7): p. e24737
    [PMID:23656876]
  31. Takahashi N, et al.
    Cytokinins control endocycle onset by promoting the expression of an APC/C activator in Arabidopsis roots.
    Curr. Biol., 2013. 23(18): p. 1812-7
    [PMID:24035544]
  32. Ge XM, et al.
    Heterotrimeric G protein mediates ethylene-induced stomatal closure via hydrogen peroxide synthesis in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2015. 82(1): p. 138-50
    [PMID:25704455]
  33. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
    [PMID:25750178]
  34. Takahashi N,Umeda M
    Cytokinins promote onset of endoreplication by controlling cell cycle machinery.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2014. 9(8): p. e29396
    [PMID:25763620]
  35. Kobayashi K, et al.
    Shoot Removal Induces Chloroplast Development in Roots via Cytokinin Signaling.
    Plant Physiol., 2017. 173(4): p. 2340-2355
    [PMID:28193764]
  36. Arnaud D, et al.
    Cytokinin-Mediated Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis Modulates Stomatal Immunity in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2017. 29(3): p. 543-559
    [PMID:28254779]
  37. Zhang TQ, et al.
    A Two-Step Model for de Novo Activation of WUSCHEL during Plant Shoot Regeneration.
    Plant Cell, 2017. 29(5): p. 1073-1087
    [PMID:28389585]
  38. Meng WJ, et al.
    Type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORs Specify the Shoot Stem Cell Niche by Dual Regulation of WUSCHEL.
    Plant Cell, 2017. 29(6): p. 1357-1372
    [PMID:28576846]
  39. Zhang F,May A,Irish VF
    Type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORs Directly Activate WUSCHEL.
    Trends Plant Sci., 2017. 22(10): p. 815-817
    [PMID:28886911]
  40. Takatsuka H,Higaki T,Umeda M
    Actin Reorganization Triggers Rapid Cell Elongation in Roots.
    Plant Physiol., 2018. 178(3): p. 1130-1141
    [PMID:30185441]
  41. Sakai H,Aoyama T,Bono H,Oka A
    Two-component response regulators from Arabidopsis thaliana contain a putative DNA-binding motif.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 1998. 39(11): p. 1232-9
    [PMID:9891419]