PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT2G43010.1
Common NameAtPIF4, BHLH9, EN102, MFL8.13, PIF4, SRL2
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family bHLH
Protein Properties Length: 430aa    MW: 48362.9 Da    PI: 6.7931
Description phytochrome interacting factor 4
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT2G43010.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
          HLH   4 ahnerErrRRdriNsafeeLrellPkaskapskKlsKaeiLekAveYIksLq 55 
                   hn  ErrRRdriN+++  L+el+P++      K +Ka+iL +A++Y+ksLq
                  6*************************9.....7******************9 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
SuperFamilySSF474593.53E-21254317IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
Gene3DG3DSA:, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
PROSITE profilePS5088819.2257306IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
CDDcd000831.95E-10260311No hitNo description
PfamPF000101.6E-15261307IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
SMARTSM003532.3E-19263312IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009585Biological Processred, far-red light phototransduction
GO:0009704Biological Processde-etiolation
GO:0010161Biological Processred light signaling pathway
GO:0010244Biological Processresponse to low fluence blue light stimulus by blue low-fluence system
GO:0010600Biological Processregulation of auxin biosynthetic process
GO:0010928Biological Processregulation of auxin mediated signaling pathway
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0005515Molecular Functionprotein binding
GO:0046983Molecular Functionprotein dimerization activity
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0008019anatomyleaf lamina base
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007064developmental stageLP.12 twelve leaves visible stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007098developmental stageLP.02 two leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007123developmental stageLP.06 six leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 430 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
Nucleic Localization Signal ? help Back to Top
No. Start End Sequence
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.190150.0seed| vegetative tissue
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT2G43010-
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRIsolated as a semidominant mutation defective in red -light responses. Encodes a nuclear localized bHLH protein that interacts with active PhyB protein. Negatively regulates phyB mediated red light responses. Involved in shade avoidance response. Protein abundance is negatively regulated by PhyB.
UniProtTranscription factor acting negatively in the phytochrome B signaling pathway. May regulate the expression of a subset of genes involved in cell expansion by binding to the G-box motif (By similarity). Activated by CRY1 and CRY2 in response to low blue light (LBL) by direct binding at chromatin on E-box variant 5'-CA[CT]GTG-3' to stimulate specific gene expression to adapt global physiology (e.g. hypocotyl elongation in low blue light) (PubMed:26724867). {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q84LH8, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26724867}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. Overexpression of SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 enhanced the expression of PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) under red light.
    [PMID: 16500988]
  2. findings show that PIF4 and PIF5 act early in the phytochrome signaling pathways to promote the shade-avoidance response
    [PMID: 18047474]
  3. Data provide evidence that the mechanism by which PIF4 operate on the phyB signaling pathway under prolonged red light is through maintaining low phyB protein levels, in an additive or synergistic manner.
    [PMID: 18252845]
  4. PIF4 Acts in a phytochrome-Dependent Manner to Mediate Changes in Stomatal Index.
    [PMID: 19185498]
  5. Results suggest that PIF4 is an important component of plant high temperature signaling and integrates multiple environmental cues during plant development.
    [PMID: 19249207]
  6. microarray analysis shows that PIF4 and PIF5 are part of an inhibitory mechanism that represses the expression of some light-responsive genes in the dark, and that they are also needed for full expression of several growth-related genes in the light.
    [PMID: 19619162]
  7. A non-synonymous coding SNP at PIF4 is associated significantly with variation in average early internode length and marginally associated with total inflorescence length.
    [PMID: 20456226]
  8. PIF4 and PIF5 responsible not only for red light signaling through the phytochromes but also for blue light signaling in the photomorphogenic control of hypocotyl elongation
    [PMID: 21150090]
  9. Studies indicate that phytochromes inhibit hypocotyl negative gravitropism by inhibiting four phytochrome-interacting factors (PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, PIF5), as shown by hypocotyl agravitropism of dark-grown pif1 pif3 pif4 pif5 quadruple mutants.
    [PMID: 21220341]
  10. At least two downstream modules participate in diurnal rhythmic hypocotyl growth: PIF4 and/or PIF5 modulation of auxin-related pathways and PIF-independent regulation of the gibberellic acid (GA) pathway.
    [PMID: 21430186]
  11. an external coincidence model involving the clock-controlled PIF4/PIF5-ATHB2 pathway is crucial for the diurnal and photoperiodic control of plant growth in A. thaliana.
    [PMID: 21666227]
  12. These results demonstrate direct molecular links among PIF4, auxin, and elongation growth at high temperature.
    [PMID: 22123947]
  13. PAR1-PRE1 and PAR1-PIF4 heterodimers form a complex HLH/bHLH network regulating cell elongation and plant development in response to light and hormones.
    [PMID: 22331621]
  14. PhyB-mediated, post-translational regulation allows PIF3 accumulation to peak just before dawn, at which time it accelerates hypocotyl growth, together with PIF4 and PIF5, by directly regulating the induction of growth-related genes.
    [PMID: 22409654]
  15. demonstration of a direct mechanism by which increasing temperature causes the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) to activate FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)
    [PMID: 22437497]
  16. our results illuminate a molecular framework by which the PIF4 transcriptional regulator integrates its action into the auxin pathway through activating the expression of specific auxin biosynthetic gene (YUCCA8).
    [PMID: 22479194]
  17. regulates elongation growth by controlling directly the expression of genes that code for auxin biosynthesis and auxin signaling components
    [PMID: 22536829]
  18. BZR1 and PIF4 interact with each other in vitro and in vivo, bind to nearly 2,000 common target genes, and synergistically regulate many of these target genes
    [PMID: 22820378]
  19. PIF4 and/or PIF5 act as modulators of auxin signaling implicated in the rhythmic elongation of hypocotyls.
    [PMID: 23037003]
  20. Circadian clock affects the expression of PIF4 in response to high temperature.
    [PMID: 23037004]
  21. Data indicate that PIF4 and PIF5 negatively regulate auxin signaling. that PIF4 and PIF5 negatively modulate auxin-mediated phototropism through directly activating IAA19 and IAA29, which physically interact with auxin factor7 (ARF7).
    [PMID: 23757399]
  22. circadian clock and PIF4/PIF5 mediated external coincidence mechanism in transcription of ST2A
    [PMID: 24317064]
  23. PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5 act together to promote and optimize growth under photoperiodic conditions.
    [PMID: 24420574]
  24. The PIF4 and PIF5 transcription factors promote flowering by at least two means: inducing FT expression in warm night and acting outside of FT by an unknown mechanism in warm days.
    [PMID: 24574484]
  25. the light-regulated PIF4 (phytochrome-interacting factor 4) factor is a phosphorylation target of the BR signaling kinase BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2), which marks this transcriptional regulator for proteasome degradation
    [PMID: 25085420]
  26. Phytochrome-interacting transcription factors PIF4 and PIF5 induce leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 25119965]
  27. The expression level of PIF3, 4, and 5 was significantly up-regulated during both age-triggered and dark-induced leaf senescence.
    [PMID: 25296857]
  28. This study shows that ELF3 and PIF4 proteins interact in an EC-independent manner, and that this interaction prevents PIF4 from activating its transcriptional targets. It also shows that PIF4 overexpression leads to ELF3 protein destabilization.
    [PMID: 25557667]
  29. PIF4 and PIF5 negatively regulate red light-induced anthocyanin accumulation through transcriptional repression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 26259175]
  30. This work establishes the role of ELF3 in the ambient temperature signaling network. Natural variation of ELF3-mediated gating of PIF4 expression during nightly growing periods seems to be affected by a coding sequence quantitative trait nucleotide.
    [PMID: 26269119]
  31. LEC1 acts as a coactivator of PIFs in transcriptional regulation during postembryonic growth.
    [PMID: 26566918]
  32. CRY1 represses auxin biosynthesis in response to elevated temperature through PIF4.
    [PMID: 26699514]
  33. For growth under a canopy, where blue light is diminished, CRY1 and CRY2 perceive this change and respond by directly contacting two bHLH transcription factors, PIF4 and PIF5.
    [PMID: 26724867]
  34. COP1 promotes the degradation of HFR1 under shade, thus increasing the ability of PIFs to control gene expression, increase auxin levels and promote stem growth.
    [PMID: 27105120]
  35. this review discusses PIF4 as a key integrator of multiple signaling pathways, which optimizes growth in the environment
    [PMID: 27432188]
  36. PIF4 and ELF3 have roles in Arabidopsis thermoresponsive flowering
    [PMID: 27564448]
  37. ethylene-insensitive 3 (EIN3) is involved into the direct regulation of YUC9 transcription in this process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) functions as a transcriptional activator for YUC5/8/9.
    [PMID: 27716807]
  38. Results show that the phytochrome-interacting factor 4 (PIF4) is required for cytokinin (CK) upregulation of the transcription of CKRC2/YUC8 and that the transcription of PIF4 itself is induced by CK via the AHKs-ARR1/12 signaling pathway.
    [PMID: 27827441]
  39. HOS1 is intimately linked with hypocotyl growth, in which HOS1 inhibits the transcriptional activation activity of PIF4
    [PMID: 27890635]
  40. The interaction between TOC1 and PIF4 mediates the circadian gating of thermoresponsive growth.
    [PMID: 27966533]
  41. Study shows that PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4)-mediated thermosensory growth and architecture adaptations are directly linked to suppression of immunity at elevated temperature. PIF4 positively regulates growth and development and negatively regulates immunity.
    [PMID: 28041792]
  42. These findings reveal a mechanistic framework in which DET1/COP1 and HY5 regulatory modules act independently to regulate growth through the environmental signal integrator PIF4.
    [PMID: 28076780]
  43. Analysis of transcriptomes indicated that increased expression of the transcription factor PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF4) may contribute to hybrid vigor by targeting the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCCA8 and the auxin signaling gene IAA29.
    [PMID: 28396418]
  44. COG1 binds to the promoter regions of PIF4 and PIF5, and PIF4 and PIF5 bind to the promoter regions of key Brassinosteroid biosynthetic genes, such as DWF4 and BR6ox2, to directly promote their expression.
    [PMID: 28438793]
  45. BAF60 binds nucleosome-free regions of multiple G box-containing genes, opposing in cis the promoting effect of the photomorphogenic and thermomorphogenic regulator Phytochrome Interacting Factor 4 (PIF4) on hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, BAF60 expression level is regulated in response to light and daily rhythms.
    [PMID: 28619072]
  46. This shows that BOP proteins act as substrate adaptors in a CUL3(BOP1/BOP2) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, targeting PIF4 proteins for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation.
    [PMID: 28826468]
  47. The findings suggest that BZR1 functions in an amplifying feedforward loop involved in PIF4 activation. Although numerous negative regulators of PIF4 have been described, the authors identify BZR1 here as a true temperature-dependent positive regulator of PIF4, acting as a major growth coordinator.
    [PMID: 29337075]
  48. DCL1 interacts with PIF4.PIF4 acts as a transcription factor for some miRNA genes and is necessary for the proper accumulation of miRNAs.
    [PMID: 29522510]
  49. Mutations in SEU affect H3K4me3 methylation at IAA6 and IAA19, and SEU positively regulates warm temperature-mediated hypocotyl growth together with PIF4. Collectively, the results reveal that SEU acts as a central regulator integrating light and temperature signals to control plant growth by coordinating with PIF4.
    [PMID: 29729397]
  50. The study suggests that CSU4 acts as a negative regulator of CCA1 via physically associating with CCA1, which in turn, likely serves to repress expression of CCA1 and PIF4 to promote photomorphogenesis.
    [PMID: 30352855]
  51. Expression levels of phosphate starvation-responsive genes are directly modulated by phytochrome interacting factors (PIF) PIF4/PIF5 and HY5 transcription factors whose activity is under the control of phytochromes.
    [PMID: 30518831]
  52. this study reveals a daytime PHYB-mediated thermosensing mechanism, in which HEMERA acts as a necessary activator for PIF4-dependent induction of temperature-responsive genes and PIF4 accumulation.
    [PMID: 30635559]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: By UV treatment. Follow a free-running robust circadian rhythm, with higher levels during the light phase. Rapidly induced by light in etiolated plants. Sixfold induction by both red and far-red light. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12679534, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12826627}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT2G46830 (A)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G29910(A), AT4G14130(A), AT5G13930(A), AT5G59320(A)
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT3G03450, AT3G59060, AT5G61270, AT1G09530, AT1G14920, AT1G02340, AT1G30330, AT1G75080
IntActSearch Q8W2F3
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT2G43010
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAF2516940.0AF251694.1 Arabidopsis thaliana putative transcription factor BHLH9 mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankAJ4407550.0AJ440755.1 Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for phytochrome interacting factor 4 (srl2 gene).
GenBankAK3168980.0AK316898.1 Arabidopsis thaliana AT2G43010 mRNA, complete cds, clone: RAFL09-22-K12.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_001323426.10.0phytochrome interacting factor 4
SwissprotQ8W2F30.0PIF4_ARATH; Transcription factor PIF4
TrEMBLA0A1P8AX080.0A0A1P8AX08_ARATH; Phytochrome interacting factor 4
STRINGAT2G43010.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP25816128
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Huq E,Quail PH
    PIF4, a phytochrome-interacting bHLH factor, functions as a negative regulator of phytochrome B signaling in Arabidopsis.
    EMBO J., 2002. 21(10): p. 2441-50
  3. Heim MA, et al.
    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in plants: a genome-wide study of protein structure and functional diversity.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2003. 20(5): p. 735-47
  4. Park DH, et al.
    The Arabidopsis COG1 gene encodes a Dof domain transcription factor and negatively regulates phytochrome signaling.
    Plant J., 2003. 34(2): p. 161-71
  5. Yamashino T, et al.
    A Link between circadian-controlled bHLH factors and the APRR1/TOC1 quintet in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2003. 44(6): p. 619-29
  6. Toledo-Ortiz G,Huq E,Quail PH
    The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(8): p. 1749-70
  7. Yamada K, et al.
    Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome.
    Science, 2003. 302(5646): p. 842-6
  8. Ito S, et al.
    Characterization of the APRR9 pseudo-response regulator belonging to the APRR1/TOC1 quintet in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2003. 44(11): p. 1237-45
  9. Huq E, et al.
    Phytochrome-interacting factor 1 is a critical bHLH regulator of chlorophyll biosynthesis.
    Science, 2004. 305(5692): p. 1937-41
  10. Khanna R, et al.
    A novel molecular recognition motif necessary for targeting photoactivated phytochrome signaling to specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16(11): p. 3033-44
  11. Kang X,Chong J,Ni M
    HYPERSENSITIVE TO RED AND BLUE 1, a ZZ-type zinc finger protein, regulates phytochrome B-mediated red and cryptochrome-mediated blue light responses.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(3): p. 822-35
  12. Kang X,Ni M
    Arabidopsis SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 contains SPX and EXS domains and acts in cryptochrome signaling.
    Plant Cell, 2006. 18(4): p. 921-34
  13. Nozue K, et al.
    Rhythmic growth explained by coincidence between internal and external cues.
    Nature, 2007. 448(7151): p. 358-61
  14. Brock MT,Tiffin P,Weinig C
    Sequence diversity and haplotype associations with phenotypic responses to crowding: GIGANTEA affects fruit set in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Mol. Ecol., 2007. 16(14): p. 3050-62
  15. Kang X,Zhou Y,Sun X,Ni M
    HYPERSENSITIVE TO RED AND BLUE 1 and its C-terminal regulatory function control FLOWERING LOCUS T expression.
    Plant J., 2007. 52(5): p. 937-48
  16. Lorrain S,Allen T,Duek PD,Whitelam GC,Fankhauser C
    Phytochrome-mediated inhibition of shade avoidance involves degradation of growth-promoting bHLH transcription factors.
    Plant J., 2008. 53(2): p. 312-23
  17. de Lucas M, et al.
    A molecular framework for light and gibberellin control of cell elongation.
    Nature, 2008. 451(7177): p. 480-4
  18. Leivar P, et al.
    The Arabidopsis phytochrome-interacting factor PIF7, together with PIF3 and PIF4, regulates responses to prolonged red light by modulating phyB levels.
    Plant Cell, 2008. 20(2): p. 337-52
  19. Kumagai T, et al.
    The common function of a novel subfamily of B-Box zinc finger proteins with reference to circadian-associated events in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2008. 72(6): p. 1539-49
  20. Ascencio-Ib
    Global analysis of Arabidopsis gene expression uncovers a complex array of changes impacting pathogen response and cell cycle during geminivirus infection.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 148(1): p. 436-54
  21. Leivar P, et al.
    Multiple phytochrome-interacting bHLH transcription factors repress premature seedling photomorphogenesis in darkness.
    Curr. Biol., 2008. 18(23): p. 1815-23
  22. Casson SA, et al.
    phytochrome B and PIF4 regulate stomatal development in response to light quantity.
    Curr. Biol., 2009. 19(3): p. 229-34
  23. Niwa Y,Yamashino T,Mizuno T
    The circadian clock regulates the photoperiodic response of hypocotyl elongation through a coincidence mechanism in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2009. 50(4): p. 838-54
  24. Koini MA, et al.
    High temperature-mediated adaptations in plant architecture require the bHLH transcription factor PIF4.
    Curr. Biol., 2009. 19(5): p. 408-13
  25. Lucyshyn D,Wigge PA
    Plant development: PIF4 integrates diverse environmental signals.
    Curr. Biol., 2009. 19(6): p. R265-6
  26. Shin J, et al.
    Phytochromes promote seedling light responses by inhibiting four negatively-acting phytochrome-interacting factors.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2009. 106(18): p. 7660-5
  27. Chang IF, et al.
    Proteomic profiling of tandem affinity purified 14-3-3 protein complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Proteomics, 2009. 9(11): p. 2967-85
  28. Xiao C,Chen F,Yu X,Lin C,Fu YF
    Over-expression of an AT-hook gene, AHL22, delays flowering and inhibits the elongation of the hypocotyl in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2009. 71(1-2): p. 39-50
  29. Lorrain S,Trevisan M,Pradervand S,Fankhauser C
    Phytochrome interacting factors 4 and 5 redundantly limit seedling de-etiolation in continuous far-red light.
    Plant J., 2009. 60(3): p. 449-61
  30. Stavang JA, et al.
    Hormonal regulation of temperature-induced growth in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2009. 60(4): p. 589-601
  31. Rawat R, et al.
    REVEILLE1, a Myb-like transcription factor, integrates the circadian clock and auxin pathways.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2009. 106(39): p. 16883-8
  32. Hornitschek P,Lorrain S,Zoete V,Michielin O,Fankhauser C
    Inhibition of the shade avoidance response by formation of non-DNA binding bHLH heterodimers.
    EMBO J., 2009. 28(24): p. 3893-902
  33. Leivar P, et al.
    Definition of early transcriptional circuitry involved in light-induced reversal of PIF-imposed repression of photomorphogenesis in young Arabidopsis seedlings.
    Plant Cell, 2009. 21(11): p. 3535-53
  34. Wang FF,Lian HL,Kang CY,Yang HQ
    Phytochrome B is involved in mediating red light-induced stomatal opening in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Mol Plant, 2010. 3(1): p. 246-59
  35. Jonassen EM,Sandsmark BA,Lillo C
    Unique status of NIA2 in nitrate assimilation: NIA2 expression is promoted by HY5/HYH and inhibited by PIF4.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2009. 4(11): p. 1084-6
  36. Gallego-Bartolomé J, et al.
    Transcriptional diversification and functional conservation between DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2010. 27(6): p. 1247-56
  37. Skinner MK,Rawls A,Wilson-Rawls J,Roalson EH
    Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene family phylogenetics and nomenclature.
    Differentiation, 2010. 80(1): p. 1-8
  38. Brock MT,Maloof JN,Weinig C
    Genes underlying quantitative variation in ecologically important traits: PIF4 (phytochrome interacting factor 4) is associated with variation in internode length, flowering time, and fruit set in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Mol. Ecol., 2010. 19(6): p. 1187-99
  39. Jang IC,Henriques R,Seo HS,Nagatani A,Chua NH
    Arabidopsis PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR proteins promote phytochrome B polyubiquitination by COP1 E3 ligase in the nucleus.
    Plant Cell, 2010. 22(7): p. 2370-83
  40. Sidaway-Lee K, et al.
    SPATULA links daytime temperature and plant growth rate.
    Curr. Biol., 2010. 20(16): p. 1493-7
  41. Ono N, et al.
    Genomewide characterization of the light-responsive and clock-controlled output pathways in Lotus japonicus with special emphasis of its uniqueness.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2010. 51(10): p. 1800-14
  42. Richter R,Behringer C,M
    The GATA-type transcription factors GNC and GNL/CGA1 repress gibberellin signaling downstream from DELLA proteins and PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORS.
    Genes Dev., 2010. 24(18): p. 2093-104
  43. Kunihiro A,Yamashino T,Mizuno T
    PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORS PIF4 and PIF5 are implicated in the regulation of hypocotyl elongation in response to blue light in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2010. 74(12): p. 2538-41
  44. Kim K, et al.
    Phytochromes inhibit hypocotyl negative gravitropism by regulating the development of endodermal amyloplasts through phytochrome-interacting factors.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2011. 108(4): p. 1729-34
  45. Foreman J, et al.
    Light receptor action is critical for maintaining plant biomass at warm ambient temperatures.
    Plant J., 2011. 65(3): p. 441-52
  46. Nozue K,Harmer SL,Maloof JN
    Genomic analysis of circadian clock-, light-, and growth-correlated genes reveals PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR5 as a modulator of auxin signaling in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2011. 156(1): p. 357-72
  47. Josse EM, et al.
    A DELLA in disguise: SPATULA restrains the growth of the developing Arabidopsis seedling.
    Plant Cell, 2011. 23(4): p. 1337-51
  48. Lozano-Juste J,Le
    Nitric oxide regulates DELLA content and PIF expression to promote photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2011. 156(3): p. 1410-23
  49. Kunihiro A, et al.
    Phytochrome-interacting factor 4 and 5 (PIF4 and PIF5) activate the homeobox ATHB2 and auxin-inducible IAA29 genes in the coincidence mechanism underlying photoperiodic control of plant growth of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2011. 52(8): p. 1315-29
  50. Nusinow DA, et al.
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