PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT2G37260.2
Common NameATWRKY44, DSL1, TTG2, WRKY44
Organism
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family WRKY
Protein Properties Length: 347aa    MW: 38432.3 Da    PI: 9.4908
Description WRKY family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT2G37260.2genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
1WRKY101.35.9e-3284140360
                  -SS-EEEEEEE--TT-SS-EEEEEE-STT---EEEEEE-SSSTTEEEEEEES--SS-- CS
         WRKY   3 DgynWrKYGqKevkgsefprsYYrCtsagCpvkkkversaedpkvveitYegeHnhek 60 
                  DgynWrKYGqK+vkgse+prsYY+Ct+++Cpvkkkvers  +++v ei+Y+geHnh+k
  AT2G37260.2  84 DGYNWRKYGQKQVKGSECPRSYYKCTHPKCPVKKKVERSV-EGQVSEIVYQGEHNHSK 140
                  9***************************************.***************85 PP

2WRKY103.51.2e-32267324259
                  --SS-EEEEEEE--TT-SS-EEEEEE-STT---EEEEEE-SSSTTEEEEEEES--SS- CS
         WRKY   2 dDgynWrKYGqKevkgsefprsYYrCtsagCpvkkkversaedpkvveitYegeHnhe 59 
                  +Dg++WrKYGqK+v g+ +prsYYrCtsa+C+++k+ver+++dp+++++tYeg+Hnh+
  AT2G37260.2 267 EDGFRWRKYGQKVVGGNAYPRSYYRCTSANCRARKHVERASDDPRAFITTYEGKHNHH 324
                  8********************************************************7 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
Gene3DG3DSA:2.20.25.803.6E-2876141IPR003657WRKY domain
SMARTSM007741.5E-3382140IPR003657WRKY domain
SuperFamilySSF1182901.57E-2483141IPR003657WRKY domain
PROSITE profilePS5081122.76884141IPR003657WRKY domain
PfamPF031068.7E-2584138IPR003657WRKY domain
Gene3DG3DSA:2.20.25.804.6E-32256324IPR003657WRKY domain
PROSITE profilePS5081131.651261326IPR003657WRKY domain
SuperFamilySSF1182902.48E-27261324IPR003657WRKY domain
SMARTSM007743.9E-38266325IPR003657WRKY domain
PfamPF031065.1E-26267324IPR003657WRKY domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009957Biological Processepidermal cell fate specification
GO:0010214Biological Processseed coat development
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0043565Molecular Functionsequence-specific DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000263anatomynon-hair root epidermal cell
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0006504anatomyleaf trichome
PO:0009005anatomyroot
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009010anatomyseed
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009046anatomyflower
PO:0009047anatomystem
PO:0020038anatomypetiole
PO:0020100anatomyhypocotyl
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 347 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
MSCDDDSDSR NYVVYKPKAK LVSKATVSAL ANMGNRQQTW RQSEAVSYGK SVSQGTHRAG  60
PNLVQKVPSF TESETSTGDR SSVDGYNWRK YGQKQVKGSE CPRSYYKCTH PKCPVKKKVE  120
RSVEGQVSEI VYQGEHNHSK PSCPLPRRAS SSISSGFQKP PKSIASEGSM GQDPNNNLYS  180
PLWNNQSNDS TQNRTEKMSE GCVITPFEFA VPRSTNSNPG TSDSGCKSSQ CDEGELDDPS  240
RSKRRKNEKQ SSEAGVSQGS VESDSLEDGF RWRKYGQKVV GGNAYPRSYY RCTSANCRAR  300
KHVERASDDP RAFITTYEGK HNHHLLLSPP SSSTLPFNSP QLSKQTI
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
Structure
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
1wj2_A7e-2984325378Probable WRKY transcription factor 4
2lex_A7e-2984325378Probable WRKY transcription factor 4
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.265130.0flower
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
GEO1865060980.0
Genevisible265954_at0.0
Expression AtlasAT2G37260-
AtGenExpressAT2G37260-
ATTED-IIAT2G37260-
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes a protein similar to WRKY transcription factors that is expressed in the seed integument and endosperm. Mutants are defective in proanthocyanidin synthesis and seed mucilate deposition. Seeds are yellow colored. Seed size is also affected; seeds are reduced in size but only when the mutant allele is transmitted through the female parent.Loss of function allele corresponding to the DSL QTL are associated with a reduction in interploidy lethality.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. Complexes containing R2R3 MYB and bHLH transcription factors regulate the expression of TTG2, which then regulates GL2 expression with complexes containing R2R3 MYB.
    [PMID: 17766401]
  2. the role of the sporophytically active TTG2 gene in interploidy crosses indicates that the developmental programming of the mother regulates the viability of interploidy hybrid offspring.
    [PMID: 19071961]
  3. GIGANTEA-miRNA172-WRKY44 may regulate drought escape and drought tolerance by affecting sugar signaling in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 24223111]
  4. Data show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 2 (TTG2) is a specific activator of TRYPTICHON protein (TRY) by binding to W-boxes in a minimal promoter fragment of TRY.
    [PMID: 25304203]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
SourceLink
PlantRegMapAT2G37260.2
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
PlantRegMapRetrieveRetrieve
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G56650 (A), AT1G63650 (A), AT1G66390 (A), AT2G37260 (A), AT2G46410 (R), AT3G13540 (A), AT3G27920 (A), AT4G09820 (A), AT4G36920 (A), AT5G14750 (A), AT5G35550 (A), AT5G41315 (A), AT5G53200 (R)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G79840(A), AT2G37260(A)
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT2G37260
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT2G37260
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAB2896070.0AB289607.1 Arabidopsis thaliana TTG2 mRNA for WRKY transcription factor, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_001078015.10.0WRKY transcription factor 44
SwissprotQ9ZUU00.0WRK44_ARATH; WRKY transcription factor 44
TrEMBLA8MRJ20.0A8MRJ2_ARATH; WRKY transcription factor 44
STRINGAT2G37260.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Eulgem T,Rushton PJ,Robatzek S,Somssich IE
    The WRKY superfamily of plant transcription factors.
    Trends Plant Sci., 2000. 5(5): p. 199-206
    [PMID:10785665]
  2. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
    [PMID:11118137]
  3. Johnson CS,Kolevski B,Smyth DR
    TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2, a trichome and seed coat development gene of Arabidopsis, encodes a WRKY transcription factor.
    Plant Cell, 2002. 14(6): p. 1359-75
    [PMID:12084832]
  4. Marles MA,Ray H,Gruber MY
    New perspectives on proanthocyanidin biochemistry and molecular regulation.
    Phytochemistry, 2003. 64(2): p. 367-83
    [PMID:12943753]
  5. Debeaujon I, et al.
    Proanthocyanidin-accumulating cells in Arabidopsis testa: regulation of differentiation and role in seed development.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(11): p. 2514-31
    [PMID:14555692]
  6. Western TL, et al.
    MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4 encodes a putative pectin biosynthetic enzyme developmentally regulated by APETALA2, TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1, and GLABRA2 in the Arabidopsis seed coat.
    Plant Physiol., 2004. 134(1): p. 296-306
    [PMID:14701918]
  7. Garcia D,Fitz Gerald JN,Berger F
    Maternal control of integument cell elongation and zygotic control of endosperm growth are coordinated to determine seed size in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(1): p. 52-60
    [PMID:15598800]
  8. Ishida T, et al.
    Arabidopsis TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2 is directly regulated by R2R3 MYB transcription factors and is involved in regulation of GLABRA2 transcription in epidermal differentiation.
    Plant Cell, 2007. 19(8): p. 2531-43
    [PMID:17766401]
  9. Zhao M,Morohashi K,Hatlestad G,Grotewold E,Lloyd A
    The TTG1-bHLH-MYB complex controls trichome cell fate and patterning through direct targeting of regulatory loci.
    Development, 2008. 135(11): p. 1991-9
    [PMID:18434419]
  10. Gonzalez A,Mendenhall J,Huo Y,Lloyd A
    TTG1 complex MYBs, MYB5 and TT2, control outer seed coat differentiation.
    Dev. Biol., 2009. 325(2): p. 412-21
    [PMID:18992236]
  11. Dilkes BP, et al.
    The maternally expressed WRKY transcription factor TTG2 controls lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis.
    PLoS Biol., 2008. 6(12): p. 2707-20
    [PMID:19071961]
  12. Buer CS,Djordjevic MA
    Architectural phenotypes in the transparent testa mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2009. 60(3): p. 751-63
    [PMID:19129166]
  13. Marks MD,Wenger JP,Gilding E,Jilk R,Dixon RA
    Transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis wild-type and gl3-sst sim trichomes identifies four additional genes required for trichome development.
    Mol Plant, 2009. 2(4): p. 803-22
    [PMID:19626137]
  14. Fang W,Wang Z,Cui R,Li J,Li Y
    Maternal control of seed size by EOD3/CYP78A6 in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2012. 70(6): p. 929-39
    [PMID:22251317]
  15. Bruex A, et al.
    A gene regulatory network for root epidermis cell differentiation in Arabidopsis.
    PLoS Genet., 2012. 8(1): p. e1002446
    [PMID:22253603]
  16. Li B, et al.
    Tobacco TTG2 suppresses resistance to pathogens by sequestering NPR1 from the nucleus.
    J. Cell. Sci., 2012. 125(Pt 20): p. 4913-22
    [PMID:22797922]
  17. Xu W, et al.
    Regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis involves an unexpected complex transcriptional regulation of TT8 expression, in Arabidopsis.
    New Phytol., 2013. 198(1): p. 59-70
    [PMID:23398515]
  18. Efroni I, et al.
    Regulation of leaf maturation by chromatin-mediated modulation of cytokinin responses.
    Dev. Cell, 2013. 24(4): p. 438-45
    [PMID:23449474]
  19. Han Y,Zhang X,Wang W,Wang Y,Ming F
    The suppression of WRKY44 by GIGANTEA-miR172 pathway is involved in drought response of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    PLoS ONE, 2013. 8(11): p. e73541
    [PMID:24223111]
  20. Pesch M,Dartan B,Birkenbihl R,Somssich IE,H
    Arabidopsis TTG2 regulates TRY expression through enhancement of activator complex-triggered activation.
    Plant Cell, 2014. 26(10): p. 4067-83
    [PMID:25304203]
  21. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
    [PMID:25750178]