PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT2G20570.1
Common NameATGLK1, F23N11.11, GLK1, GPRI1
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family G2-like
Protein Properties Length: 420aa    MW: 45987.6 Da    PI: 6.5412
Description GBF's pro-rich region-interacting factor 1
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT2G20570.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
      G2-like   1 kprlrWtpeLHerFveaveqLGGsekAtPktilelmkvkgLtlehvkSHLQkYRla 56 
                  k +++WtpeLH+rFveaveqL G +kA+P++ilelm+v++Lt+++v+SHLQkYR++
                  5689*****************.********************************86 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PROSITE profilePS5129418.721150209IPR017930Myb domain
TIGRFAMsTIGR015573.0E-26153207IPR006447Myb domain, plants
PfamPF002494.1E-8156205IPR001005SANT/Myb domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0007165Biological Processsignal transduction
GO:0009658Biological Processchloroplast organization
GO:0009910Biological Processnegative regulation of flower development
GO:0010380Biological Processregulation of chlorophyll biosynthetic process
GO:0010638Biological Processpositive regulation of organelle organization
GO:0045893Biological Processpositive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:1900056Biological Processnegative regulation of leaf senescence
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0005515Molecular Functionprotein binding
GO:0044212Molecular Functiontranscription regulatory region DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0008019anatomyleaf lamina base
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007064developmental stageLP.12 twelve leaves visible stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007098developmental stageLP.02 two leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007123developmental stageLP.06 six leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 420 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
5lxu_A4e-15158209657Transcription factor LUX
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.241340.0bud| seed| silique| vegetative tissue
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT2G20570-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in rosette and cauline leaves. Expressed at low levels in cotyledons and shoots. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12220263}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes GLK1, Golden2-like 1, one of a pair of partially redundant nuclear transcription factors that regulate chloroplast development in a cell-autonomous manner. GLK2, Golden2-like 2, is encoded by At5g44190. GLK1 and GLK2 regulate the expression of the photosynthetic apparatus.
UniProtTranscriptional activator that functions with GLK2 to promote chloroplast development. Acts as an activator of nuclear photosynthetic genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, light harvesting, and electron transport. Acts in a cell-autonomous manner to coordinate and maintain the photosynthetic apparatus within individual cells. May function in photosynthetic capacity optimization by integrating responses to variable environmental and endogenous cues (PubMed:11828027, PubMed:12220263, PubMed:17533111, PubMed:18643989, PubMed:19376934, PubMed:19383092, PubMed:19726569). Prevents premature senescence (PubMed:23459204). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11828027, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12220263, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17533111, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18643989, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19376934, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19383092, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19726569, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23459204}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. GLK1 'regulon' encodes disease defense related proteins and confers resistance to Fusarium graminearum in Arabidopsis
    [PMID: 17533111]
  2. GLK1 and GLK2 are functionally equivalent. They act in a cell-autonomous manner to regulate chloroplast development. When mis-expressed in the phloem, GLKs can be unloaded into adjoining photosynthetic tissue.
    [PMID: 18643989]
  3. GLK1 and GLK2 stimulate expression of chlorophyll biosynthesis and light-harvesting genes.
    [PMID: 19376934]
  4. AtGLK1 may coordinate plastid protein import and nuclear gene expression.
    [PMID: 19726569]
  5. ORE1 interacts with the G2-like transcription factors GLK1 and GLK2, which are important for chloroplast development and maintenance.
    [PMID: 23459204]
  6. Overexpression of GLKs caused up-regulation of not only their direct targets but also non-target nuclear and plastid genes, leading to global induction of chloroplast biogenesis in the root.
    [PMID: 23749810]
  7. data reveal that AtGLK1 is involved in JA-dependent susceptibility to the biotrophic pathogen Hpa Noco2 and in JA-independent resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea
    [PMID: 24393452]
  8. Overexpressors of the Golden2-like transcription factors GLK1 and GLK2 were identified as genomes uncoupled mutants.
    [PMID: 26876646]
  9. plants that overexpress GLK1/2 exhibited an open-stomata phenotype and higher sensitivity to ozone
    [PMID: 27035938]
  10. Plastid signals down-regulate the accumulation of GLK1 through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
    [PMID: 27821720]
  11. P69 binding to GLK proteins may interfere with the interaction between GLK proteins and upstream transcription factors, causing defective binding of GLK proteins to their targets.
    [PMID: 27964999]
  12. silencing of AtRAP by AtlsiRNA-1 upon bacterial infection triggers defense responses through regulation of LSU2 and GLK1.
    [PMID: 28656601]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: By light. Repressed by BZR2. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12220263, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21214652}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G19350 (R)
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT2G46270, AT4G36730, AT5G39610, AT1G28360
IntActSearch Q9SIV3
Phenotype -- Disruption Phenotype ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtDISRUPTION PHENOTYPE: No visible phenotype (PubMed:12220263). Pale-green seedlings in double mutants glk1/glk2 (PubMed:23459204). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12220263, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23459204}.
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT2G20570
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAB0624890.0AB062489.1 Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for GPRI1, complete cds.
GenBankAY0267720.0AY026772.1 Arabidopsis thaliana golden2-like transcription factor (GLK1) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankAY0546000.0AY054600.1 Arabidopsis thaliana Unknown protein (At2g20570; F23N11.11) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankAY0814850.0AY081485.1 Arabidopsis thaliana unknown protein (At2g20570) mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_565476.10.0GBF's pro-rich region-interacting factor 1
SwissprotQ9SIV30.0GLK1_ARATH; Transcription activator GLK1
STRINGAT2G20570.20.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Tamai H,Iwabuchi M,Meshi T
    Arabidopsis GARP transcriptional activators interact with the Pro-rich activation domain shared by G-box-binding bZIP factors.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2002. 43(1): p. 99-107
  3. Fitter DW,Martin DJ,Copley MJ,Scotland RW,Langdale JA
    GLK gene pairs regulate chloroplast development in diverse plant species.
    Plant J., 2002. 31(6): p. 713-27
  4. Yamada K, et al.
    Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome.
    Science, 2003. 302(5646): p. 842-6
  5. Savitch LV,Subramaniam R,Allard GC,Singh J
    The GLK1 'regulon' encodes disease defense related proteins and confers resistance to Fusarium graminearum in Arabidopsis.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2007. 359(2): p. 234-8
  6. GutiƩrrez RA, et al.
    Systems approach identifies an organic nitrogen-responsive gene network that is regulated by the master clock control gene CCA1.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2008. 105(12): p. 4939-44
  7. Waters MT,Moylan EC,Langdale JA
    GLK transcription factors regulate chloroplast development in a cell-autonomous manner.
    Plant J., 2008. 56(3): p. 432-44
  8. Waters MT, et al.
    GLK transcription factors coordinate expression of the photosynthetic apparatus in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2009. 21(4): p. 1109-28
  9. Bravo-Garcia A,Yasumura Y,Langdale JA
    Specialization of the Golden2-like regulatory pathway during land plant evolution.
    New Phytol., 2009. 183(1): p. 133-41
  10. Kakizaki T, et al.
    Coordination of plastid protein import and nuclear gene expression by plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling.
    Plant Physiol., 2009. 151(3): p. 1339-53
  11. Perochon A, et al.
    Interaction of a plant pseudo-response regulator with a calmodulin-like protein.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2010. 398(4): p. 747-51
  12. Yu X, et al.
    A brassinosteroid transcriptional network revealed by genome-wide identification of BESI target genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2011. 65(4): p. 634-46
  13. Arabidopsis Interactome Mapping Consortium
    Evidence for network evolution in an Arabidopsis interactome map.
    Science, 2011. 333(6042): p. 601-7
  14. Yu B, et al.
    Arabidopsis cpSRP54 regulates carotenoid accumulation in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2012. 63(14): p. 5189-202
  15. Wang P, et al.
    Evolution of GOLDEN2-LIKE gene function in C(3) and C (4) plants.
    Planta, 2013. 237(2): p. 481-95
  16. Efroni I, et al.
    Regulation of leaf maturation by chromatin-mediated modulation of cytokinin responses.
    Dev. Cell, 2013. 24(4): p. 438-45
  17. Rauf M, et al.
    ORE1 balances leaf senescence against maintenance by antagonizing G2-like-mediated transcription.
    EMBO Rep., 2013. 14(4): p. 382-8
  18. Kobayashi K, et al.
    Photosynthesis of root chloroplasts developed in Arabidopsis lines overexpressing GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2013. 54(8): p. 1365-77
  19. Murmu J, et al.
    Arabidopsis GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors activate jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent disease susceptibility to the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, as well as JA-independent plant immunity against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea.
    Mol. Plant Pathol., 2014. 15(2): p. 174-84
  20. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  21. Leister D,Kleine T
    Definition of a core module for the nuclear retrograde response to altered organellar gene expression identifies GLK overexpressors as gun mutants.
    Physiol Plant, 2016. 157(3): p. 297-309
  22. Nagatoshi Y, et al.
    GOLDEN 2-LIKE transcription factors for chloroplast development affect ozone tolerance through the regulation of stomatal movement.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016. 113(15): p. 4218-23
  23. Tokumaru M, et al.
    Ubiquitin-Proteasome Dependent Regulation of the GOLDEN2-LIKE 1 Transcription Factor in Response to Plastid Signals.
    Plant Physiol., 2017. 173(1): p. 524-535
  24. Ni F, et al.
    Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus P69 Interacts with and Suppresses GLK Transcription Factors to Cause Pale-Green Symptoms in Arabidopsis.
    Mol Plant, 2017. 10(5): p. 764-766
  25. Wang H,Seo JK,Gao S,Cui X,Jin H
    Silencing of AtRAP, a target gene of a bacteria-induced small RNA, triggers antibacterial defense responses through activation of LSU2 and down-regulation of GLK1.
    New Phytol., 2017. 215(3): p. 1144-1155