PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Vitis vinifera
bHLH Family
Species TF ID Description
GSVIVT01000012001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01000717001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01000771001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01002668001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01002833001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01003437001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01003697001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01003698001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01003701001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01004409001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01004930001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01004940001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01005301001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01006588001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01007117001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01007339001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01007389001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01007772001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01007914001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01008030001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01008034001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01008093001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01008164001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01008299001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01008305001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01008628001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01008637001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01009097001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01009166001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01009234001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01009292001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01009357001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01009467001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01009469001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01009479001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01009761001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01010100001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01010126001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01010280001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01011109001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01011123001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01011330001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01011380001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01011873001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01011960001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01013553001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01013720001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01014542001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01014589001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01015006001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01015189001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01015353001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01016594001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01017050001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01017892001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01018094001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01018111001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01018165001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01018459001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01018460001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01018461001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01018777001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01018886001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01018942001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01019659001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01019750001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01020027001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01020121001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01020561001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01020688001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01020814001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01021032001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01021074001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01021787001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01022111001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01022120001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01022881001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01023585001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01023783001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01024008001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01024084001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01025313001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01025747001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01026056001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01026516001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01026927001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01027323001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01027412001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01027446001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01027766001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01028238001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01028516001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01028719001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01029311001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01030333001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01030640001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01030846001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01031020001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01031338001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01031466001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01031718001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01032055001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01032789001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01032998001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01033350001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01033356001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01033618001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01034621001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01036202001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01036533001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01036959001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01037846001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01037903001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01037927001bHLH family protein
GSVIVT01038142001bHLH family protein
bHLH Family Introduction

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment.

This family is defined by the bHLH signature domain, which consists of 60 amino acids with two functionally distinct regions. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that the interaction between the HLH regions of two separate polypeptides leads to the formation of homodimers and/or heterodimers and that the basic region of each partner binds to half of the DNA recognition sequence. Some bHLH proteins form homodimers or restrict their heterodimerization activity to closely related members of the family. On the other hand, some can form heterodimers with one or several different partners.

The core DNA sequence motif recognized by the bHLH proteins is a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'). There are different types of E-boxes, depending on the identity of the two central bases. One of the most common is the palindromic G-box (5'-CACGTG-3'). Certain conserved amino acids within the basic region of the protein provide recognition of the core consensus site, whereas other residues in the domain dictate specificity for a given type of E-box . In addition, flanking nucleotides outside of the hexanucleotide core have been shown to play a role in binding specificity, and there is evidence that a loop residue in the protein plays a role in DNA binding through elements that lie outside of the core recognition sequence.

Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH.
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
Plant Cell. 2003 Aug;15(8):1749-70
PMID: 12897250