PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Triticum urartu
bHLH Family
Species TF ID Description
TRIUR3_00968-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_01157-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_01224-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_01225-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_01282-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_01454-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_04029-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_04618-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_05076-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_05977-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_05978-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_06081-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_07115-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_07341-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_07421-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_07475-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_08191-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_09788-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_09991-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_10022-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_10309-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_10349-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_10631-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_11692-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_12207-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_12568-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_12818-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_13053-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_13152-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_13265-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_13760-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_13799-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_14379-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_14778-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_14870-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_14872-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_14889-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_14996-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_15085-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_15335-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_15459-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_15679-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_16046-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_16394-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_16896-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_16897-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_16946-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_16992-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_17003-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_17375-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_17467-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_17670-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_17846-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_18005-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_18175-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_18209-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_18279-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_18508-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_18806-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_19005-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_19095-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_19098-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_19402-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_19577-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_20544-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_21181-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_21807-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_22165-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_23152-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_23381-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_23651-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_24341-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_24765-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_25332-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_26157-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_26354-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_26625-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_26736-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_26880-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_26921-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_27148-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_27166-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_27184-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_27194-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_28560-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_28638-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_29035-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_29141-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_29197-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_29716-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_29908-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_31002-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_31628-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_31817-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_31897-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_32014-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_32308-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_32487-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_32669-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_32784-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_33471-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_33768-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_33816-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_33956-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_34059-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_34325-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_34817-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_34826-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_35186-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_35423-P1bHLH family protein
TRIUR3_35464-P1bHLH family protein
bHLH Family Introduction

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment.

This family is defined by the bHLH signature domain, which consists of 60 amino acids with two functionally distinct regions. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that the interaction between the HLH regions of two separate polypeptides leads to the formation of homodimers and/or heterodimers and that the basic region of each partner binds to half of the DNA recognition sequence. Some bHLH proteins form homodimers or restrict their heterodimerization activity to closely related members of the family. On the other hand, some can form heterodimers with one or several different partners.

The core DNA sequence motif recognized by the bHLH proteins is a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'). There are different types of E-boxes, depending on the identity of the two central bases. One of the most common is the palindromic G-box (5'-CACGTG-3'). Certain conserved amino acids within the basic region of the protein provide recognition of the core consensus site, whereas other residues in the domain dictate specificity for a given type of E-box . In addition, flanking nucleotides outside of the hexanucleotide core have been shown to play a role in binding specificity, and there is evidence that a loop residue in the protein plays a role in DNA binding through elements that lie outside of the core recognition sequence.

Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH.
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
Plant Cell. 2003 Aug;15(8):1749-70
PMID: 12897250