PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Sphagnum fallax
bHLH Family
Species TF ID Description
Sphfalx0000s0256.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0000s0256.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0000s0256.3.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0000s0256.4.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0000s0307.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0000s0358.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0000s0571.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0000s0777.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0001s0040.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0001s0194.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0001s0248.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0002s0005.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0002s0095.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0002s0451.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0003s0052.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0003s0052.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0005s0047.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0005s0047.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0005s0313.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0007s0064.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0007s0142.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0007s0142.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0007s0297.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0009s0039.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0009s0278.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0011s0074.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0012s0115.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0013s0294.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0017s0142.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0018s0169.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0019s0092.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0020s0089.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0020s0119.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0020s0119.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0021s0035.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0022s0081.10.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0022s0081.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0022s0081.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0022s0081.3.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0022s0081.4.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0022s0081.5.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0022s0081.6.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0022s0081.7.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0022s0081.8.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0022s0081.9.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0023s0041.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0023s0153.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0023s0179.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0026s0046.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0027s0007.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0027s0007.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0028s0068.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0028s0068.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0032s0096.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0032s0096.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0032s0152.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0032s0152.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0032s0152.3.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0032s0152.4.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0039s0014.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0040s0034.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0040s0066.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0043s0001.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0043s0001.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0047s0045.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0047s0045.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0047s0045.3.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0047s0045.4.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0047s0045.5.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0047s0045.6.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0048s0074.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0048s0095.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0048s0095.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0049s0139.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0050s0032.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0050s0092.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0051s0034.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0051s0034.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0052s0081.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0055s0010.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0059s0005.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0059s0077.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0059s0078.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0059s0078.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0062s0078.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0062s0078.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0071s0018.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0071s0020.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0072s0003.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0073s0028.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0073s0028.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0079s0079.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0080s0016.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0081s0108.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0083s0022.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0084s0065.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0085s0006.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0085s0006.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0086s0001.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0088s0074.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0098s0031.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0099s0007.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0100s0011.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0105s0026.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0111s0025.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0111s0025.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0116s0023.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0122s0022.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0126s0035.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0135s0041.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0149s0004.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0151s0008.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0154s0010.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0163s0012.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0166s0024.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0168s0036.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0176s0027.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0194s0030.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0194s0030.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0195s0035.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0195s0035.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0208s0012.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0226s0029.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0246s0020.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0253s0009.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0285s0014.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0310s0010.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0310s0010.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0322s0002.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0322s0002.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0009.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.10.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.11.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.12.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.13.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.14.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.15.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.16.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.17.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.18.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.19.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.20.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.21.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.22.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.23.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.24.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.25.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.26.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.27.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.28.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.29.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.2.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.30.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.31.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.3.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.4.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.5.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.6.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.7.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.8.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0328s0011.9.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0415s0001.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0465s0001.1.pbHLH family protein
Sphfalx0465s0001.2.pbHLH family protein
bHLH Family Introduction

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment.

This family is defined by the bHLH signature domain, which consists of 60 amino acids with two functionally distinct regions. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that the interaction between the HLH regions of two separate polypeptides leads to the formation of homodimers and/or heterodimers and that the basic region of each partner binds to half of the DNA recognition sequence. Some bHLH proteins form homodimers or restrict their heterodimerization activity to closely related members of the family. On the other hand, some can form heterodimers with one or several different partners.

The core DNA sequence motif recognized by the bHLH proteins is a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'). There are different types of E-boxes, depending on the identity of the two central bases. One of the most common is the palindromic G-box (5'-CACGTG-3'). Certain conserved amino acids within the basic region of the protein provide recognition of the core consensus site, whereas other residues in the domain dictate specificity for a given type of E-box . In addition, flanking nucleotides outside of the hexanucleotide core have been shown to play a role in binding specificity, and there is evidence that a loop residue in the protein plays a role in DNA binding through elements that lie outside of the core recognition sequence.

Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH.
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
Plant Cell. 2003 Aug;15(8):1749-70
PMID: 12897250