PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Pseudotsuga menziesii
bHLH Family
Species TF ID Description
PSME_00000014-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00000215-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00000216-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00001310-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00002427-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00002554-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00002586-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00004023-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00004484-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00004970-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00004971-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00004973-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00004974-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00005510-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00005902-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00005938-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00006142-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00006575-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00006710-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00006711-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00007197-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00007254-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00007620-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00008023-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00008494-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00009747-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00009748-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00009880-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00009969-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00010243-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00010577-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00011272-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00011466-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00012145-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00012458-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00012478-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00012479-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00012481-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00012621-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00012852-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00012853-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00013916-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00013917-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00014014-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00014015-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00014129-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00014660-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00014663-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00014966-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00015085-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00015095-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00015862-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00016278-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00017305-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00017392-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00017682-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00017756-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00017842-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00018172-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00018417-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00018858-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00019232-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00019233-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00019795-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00019812-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00019813-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00019949-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00019999-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00020000-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00020009-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00020065-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00020237-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00020748-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00021510-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00021721-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00021722-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00021723-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00021724-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00022099-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00022236-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00022243-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00022289-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00022405-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00022457-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00022623-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00022805-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00023048-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00023373-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00024237-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00024384-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00024409-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00024450-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00024677-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00024989-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00024990-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00025037-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00025116-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00025117-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00025428-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00025430-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00025595-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00026031-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00026529-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00027147-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00027164-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00027554-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00029422-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00029446-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00029447-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00029667-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00029759-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00030216-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00030258-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00030699-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00031427-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00031878-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00032227-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00032440-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00032560-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00033282-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00033300-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00033305-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00033537-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00033574-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00034412-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00034413-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00034758-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00034803-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00035226-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00035406-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00035816-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00036059-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00036094-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00036646-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00037033-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00037448-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00037487-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00037798-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00038236-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00038483-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00038518-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00038811-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00039285-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00039404-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00039747-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00040172-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00040197-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00040991-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00041105-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00041138-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00041173-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00041287-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00041383-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00041614-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00042235-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00042236-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00042556-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00042685-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00042783-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00042784-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00042787-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00042827-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00043046-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00043058-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00043508-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00043707-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00044193-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00044409-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00044689-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00045515-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00045851-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00046223-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00046249-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00046307-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00046987-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00047116-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00047139-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00047140-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00047209-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00047525-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00047646-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00047759-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00047880-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00048050-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00048166-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00048623-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00048966-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00048969-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00049043-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00049071-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00049095-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00049224-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00049251-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00049266-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00049315-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00049496-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00049751-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00049828-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00050087-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00050119-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00050471-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00050538-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00050794-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00051161-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00051246-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00051248-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00051696-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00051708-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00051768-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00052132-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00052185-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00052675-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00052742-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00052769-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00052913-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00052973-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00052974-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00053203-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00053421-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00053451-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00053461-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00053599-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00053603-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00053932-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00054211-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00054393-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00054758-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00055171-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00055896-RAbHLH family protein
PSME_00056979-RAbHLH family protein
bHLH Family Introduction

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment.

This family is defined by the bHLH signature domain, which consists of 60 amino acids with two functionally distinct regions. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that the interaction between the HLH regions of two separate polypeptides leads to the formation of homodimers and/or heterodimers and that the basic region of each partner binds to half of the DNA recognition sequence. Some bHLH proteins form homodimers or restrict their heterodimerization activity to closely related members of the family. On the other hand, some can form heterodimers with one or several different partners.

The core DNA sequence motif recognized by the bHLH proteins is a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'). There are different types of E-boxes, depending on the identity of the two central bases. One of the most common is the palindromic G-box (5'-CACGTG-3'). Certain conserved amino acids within the basic region of the protein provide recognition of the core consensus site, whereas other residues in the domain dictate specificity for a given type of E-box . In addition, flanking nucleotides outside of the hexanucleotide core have been shown to play a role in binding specificity, and there is evidence that a loop residue in the protein plays a role in DNA binding through elements that lie outside of the core recognition sequence.

Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH.
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
Plant Cell. 2003 Aug;15(8):1749-70
PMID: 12897250