PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Petunia inflata
bHLH Family
Species TF ID Description
Peinf101Ctg13287258g00002.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Ctg13715789g00001.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00013g04003.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00015g04016.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00019g07002.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00022g00010.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00028g00014.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00040g01007.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00041g05023.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00044g20015.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00049g02031.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00049g02034.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00049g16059.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00062g05005.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00067g18001.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00073g09020.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00077g06016.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00082g12020.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00122g00003.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00125g05004.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00125g05013.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00140g06006.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00152g14024.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00167g09003.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00167g11027.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00169g20009.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00169g22008.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00184g03032.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00191g02005.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00191g34010.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00208g02020.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00216g02011.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00219g02008.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00264g03003.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00276g10019.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00331g03006.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00360g00020.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00364g01018.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00371g03012.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00371g03016.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00373g21022.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00382g05009.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00382g12002.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00384g00015.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00395g02051.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00416g08028.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00421g27001.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00428g04011.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00441g02012.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00441g08004.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00456g04008.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00468g01019.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00468g06012.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00468g08013.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00468g08014.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00468g09008.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00468g09010.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00468g09014.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00475g19014.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00479g01021.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00482g04027.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00486g02014.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00500g02032.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00500g06037.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00500g09029.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00506g19004.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00526g05016.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00543g06008.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00549g00014.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00559g02002.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00559g04018.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00571g21009.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00590g23022.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00594g22021.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00606g04020.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00634g04013.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00634g07008.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00645g03015.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00650g17002.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00650g22037.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00652g02001.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00661g03026.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00713g00005.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00714g01002.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00716g06007.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00736g24013.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00750g04018.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00782g14004.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00811g00011.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00816g01008.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00835g00013.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00887g01035.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00904g01016.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00930g09018.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00939g02015.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00959g07009.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00961g10016.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00962g10037.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf00990g00013.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01008g03023.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01026g12002.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01026g12017.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01044g05033.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01065g01054.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01093g11002.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01129g02006.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01139g00007.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01141g00012.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01141g00013.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01142g10041.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01171g02004.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01175g06020.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01175g08057.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01201g04021.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01201g04022.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01208g04002.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01262g04018.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01262g06014.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01267g01037.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01271g05019.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01272g05023.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01279g00012.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01294g05037.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01347g00023.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01380g02033.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01380g08064.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01452g03021.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01556g06005.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01617g01028.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01626g00008.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01626g00009.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01626g02005.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01632g04028.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01633g06036.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01733g00012.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01734g02027.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01758g00006.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01769g01012.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01807g00007.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01853g04024.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01889g02036.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01889g11041.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01889g13052.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf01913g00005.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02016g05006.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02016g05052.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02018g00018.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02091g01031.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02160g03024.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02160g03031.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02206g05018.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02279g03007.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02312g00003.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02318g00040.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02318g10038.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02339g08015.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02395g00020.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02475g00013.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02476g00020.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02666g00014.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02685g00016.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02757g03066.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf02868g00006.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf03000g00020.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf03038g00053.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf03039g04017.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf03215g00003.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf03283g00005.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf03362g00004.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf03526g00003.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf03542g00006.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf04348g00006.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf04394g00020.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf04403g03081.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf05187g00008.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf05363g00067.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf05858g00011.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf06681g00001.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf08155g00008.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf10205g00003.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf11799g00003.1bHLH family protein
Peinf101Scf12314g00002.1bHLH family protein
bHLH Family Introduction

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment.

This family is defined by the bHLH signature domain, which consists of 60 amino acids with two functionally distinct regions. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that the interaction between the HLH regions of two separate polypeptides leads to the formation of homodimers and/or heterodimers and that the basic region of each partner binds to half of the DNA recognition sequence. Some bHLH proteins form homodimers or restrict their heterodimerization activity to closely related members of the family. On the other hand, some can form heterodimers with one or several different partners.

The core DNA sequence motif recognized by the bHLH proteins is a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'). There are different types of E-boxes, depending on the identity of the two central bases. One of the most common is the palindromic G-box (5'-CACGTG-3'). Certain conserved amino acids within the basic region of the protein provide recognition of the core consensus site, whereas other residues in the domain dictate specificity for a given type of E-box . In addition, flanking nucleotides outside of the hexanucleotide core have been shown to play a role in binding specificity, and there is evidence that a loop residue in the protein plays a role in DNA binding through elements that lie outside of the core recognition sequence.

Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH.
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
Plant Cell. 2003 Aug;15(8):1749-70
PMID: 12897250