PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Petunia axillaris
bHLH Family
Species TF ID Description
Peaxi162Scf00000g00723.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00003g00218.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00003g01722.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00003g02711.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00003g02730.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00003g04231.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00003g04241.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00003g04929.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00007g01411.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00008g00815.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00008g03526.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00009g00111.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00009g00216.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00012g00161.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00013g00537.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00013g00838.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00014g01814.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00015g00133.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00015g01031.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00016g00625.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00016g02026.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00016g02842.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00017g02115.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00017g02837.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00017g03268.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00024g02317.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00026g00312.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00028g00036.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00037g00014.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00038g01110.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00039g00172.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00045g00011.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00047g00063.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00049g02223.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00052g01817.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00054g00047.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00059g01717.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00062g00421.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00062g01420.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00065g01127.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00070g00045.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00071g00210.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00078g00546.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00081g01616.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00082g01311.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00087g00075.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00087g00093.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00096g00126.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00111g01327.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00119g00942.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00129g00321.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00139g00049.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00140g00812.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00148g00161.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00152g00131.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00152g00426.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00156g00023.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00156g00213.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00160g00419.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00160g00836.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00171g01120.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00188g00813.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00188g01023.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00192g00715.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00194g00213.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00196g00088.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00196g00118.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00201g00004.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00207g00131.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00207g01048.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00207g01146.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00209g00932.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00216g00001.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00216g00008.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00216g00012.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00216g00116.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00216g00121.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00221g00512.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00231g00427.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00231g01015.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00236g00024.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00237g00101.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00250g00016.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00267g00138.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00267g00139.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00273g00613.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00274g00834.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00284g00719.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00285g00230.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00285g00311.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00286g00531.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00286g00828.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00291g00015.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00299g00345.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00314g00529.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00338g00912.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00345g00021.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00347g01020.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00350g00610.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00351g00108.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00358g01213.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00362g01043.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00375g00812.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00377g00029.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00378g00416.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00380g00016.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00380g00817.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00386g00922.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00418g00742.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00423g00219.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00428g01020.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00441g00317.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00450g00124.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00451g00816.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00458g00320.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00460g00011.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00469g00141.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00484g00018.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00490g00018.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00498g00042.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00498g00054.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00498g00537.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00499g00414.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00503g00311.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00503g00417.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00530g00031.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00564g00212.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00574g00008.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00592g00445.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00592g00446.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00634g00326.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00684g00019.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00710g00416.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00716g00024.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00735g00516.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00753g00332.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00753g00435.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00767g00043.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00772g00048.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00772g00049.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00772g00076.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00813g00118.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00818g00526.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00818g00527.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00818g00528.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00818g00530.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00839g00233.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00850g00416.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00859g00037.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00876g00220.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00904g00215.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00931g00515.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00939g00006.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00939g00120.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00943g00310.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00961g00117.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00979g00024.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf00980g00018.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01002g00120.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01064g00013.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01073g00009.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01086g00136.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01132g00026.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01133g00017.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01161g00122.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01178g00113.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01178g00119.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01190g00006.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01209g00011.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01289g00011.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01306g00019.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01416g00015.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01530g00011.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf01574g00026.1bHLH family protein
Peaxi162Scf06118g00001.1bHLH family protein
bHLH Family Introduction

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment.

This family is defined by the bHLH signature domain, which consists of 60 amino acids with two functionally distinct regions. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that the interaction between the HLH regions of two separate polypeptides leads to the formation of homodimers and/or heterodimers and that the basic region of each partner binds to half of the DNA recognition sequence. Some bHLH proteins form homodimers or restrict their heterodimerization activity to closely related members of the family. On the other hand, some can form heterodimers with one or several different partners.

The core DNA sequence motif recognized by the bHLH proteins is a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'). There are different types of E-boxes, depending on the identity of the two central bases. One of the most common is the palindromic G-box (5'-CACGTG-3'). Certain conserved amino acids within the basic region of the protein provide recognition of the core consensus site, whereas other residues in the domain dictate specificity for a given type of E-box . In addition, flanking nucleotides outside of the hexanucleotide core have been shown to play a role in binding specificity, and there is evidence that a loop residue in the protein plays a role in DNA binding through elements that lie outside of the core recognition sequence.

Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH.
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
Plant Cell. 2003 Aug;15(8):1749-70
PMID: 12897250