PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Eragrostis tef
bHLH Family
Species TF ID Description
462846698bHLH family protein
462848579bHLH family protein
462849496bHLH family protein
462849857bHLH family protein
462851806bHLH family protein
462852206bHLH family protein
462855479bHLH family protein
462855790bHLH family protein
462856600bHLH family protein
462857710bHLH family protein
462857794bHLH family protein
462859189bHLH family protein
462859609bHLH family protein
462861884bHLH family protein
462862240bHLH family protein
462862680bHLH family protein
462862682bHLH family protein
462862714bHLH family protein
462862785bHLH family protein
462863174bHLH family protein
462863518bHLH family protein
462865574bHLH family protein
462865649bHLH family protein
462866440bHLH family protein
462866710bHLH family protein
462868147bHLH family protein
462868231bHLH family protein
462868458bHLH family protein
462868864bHLH family protein
462870064bHLH family protein
462870476bHLH family protein
462870478bHLH family protein
462875481bHLH family protein
462875706bHLH family protein
462877788bHLH family protein
462879584bHLH family protein
462881384bHLH family protein
462881738bHLH family protein
462882118bHLH family protein
462883206bHLH family protein
462883287bHLH family protein
462883898bHLH family protein
462883901bHLH family protein
462884738bHLH family protein
462884795bHLH family protein
462885178bHLH family protein
462885286bHLH family protein
462885352bHLH family protein
462885714bHLH family protein
462886340bHLH family protein
462886641bHLH family protein
462887272bHLH family protein
462887900bHLH family protein
462889186bHLH family protein
462890127bHLH family protein
462890410bHLH family protein
462891488bHLH family protein
462891587bHLH family protein
462892139bHLH family protein
462892761bHLH family protein
462893346bHLH family protein
462894816bHLH family protein
462895392bHLH family protein
462895668bHLH family protein
462897023bHLH family protein
462897548bHLH family protein
462897569bHLH family protein
462898238bHLH family protein
462899575bHLH family protein
462899802bHLH family protein
462901917bHLH family protein
462902771bHLH family protein
462902819bHLH family protein
462904312bHLH family protein
462904540bHLH family protein
462905220bHLH family protein
462908043bHLH family protein
462908510bHLH family protein
462908683bHLH family protein
462910189bHLH family protein
462911770bHLH family protein
462912961bHLH family protein
462913329bHLH family protein
462913788bHLH family protein
462914291bHLH family protein
462915077bHLH family protein
462915496bHLH family protein
462916348bHLH family protein
462917675bHLH family protein
462919245bHLH family protein
462919248bHLH family protein
462920619bHLH family protein
462920884bHLH family protein
462920917bHLH family protein
462921630bHLH family protein
462922698bHLH family protein
462923109bHLH family protein
462924164bHLH family protein
462925580bHLH family protein
462927945bHLH family protein
462928033bHLH family protein
462928394bHLH family protein
462929290bHLH family protein
462930340bHLH family protein
462931238bHLH family protein
462931643bHLH family protein
462931826bHLH family protein
462932550bHLH family protein
462933083bHLH family protein
462933244bHLH family protein
462934244bHLH family protein
462935741bHLH family protein
462936518bHLH family protein
462936766bHLH family protein
462939026bHLH family protein
462939155bHLH family protein
462939773bHLH family protein
462940075bHLH family protein
462942509bHLH family protein
462942512bHLH family protein
462942723bHLH family protein
462943512bHLH family protein
462943536bHLH family protein
462943545bHLH family protein
462943852bHLH family protein
462944066bHLH family protein
462944114bHLH family protein
462945759bHLH family protein
462946621bHLH family protein
462947044bHLH family protein
462947530bHLH family protein
462948128bHLH family protein
462948658bHLH family protein
462948995bHLH family protein
462949261bHLH family protein
462949961bHLH family protein
462950678bHLH family protein
462951742bHLH family protein
462953340bHLH family protein
462953740bHLH family protein
462954421bHLH family protein
462954904bHLH family protein
462954955bHLH family protein
462956145bHLH family protein
462956243bHLH family protein
462956909bHLH family protein
462958109bHLH family protein
462959009bHLH family protein
462959036bHLH family protein
462959111bHLH family protein
462959813bHLH family protein
462962072bHLH family protein
462962174bHLH family protein
462962580bHLH family protein
462963540bHLH family protein
462965317bHLH family protein
462967105bHLH family protein
462967834bHLH family protein
462967941bHLH family protein
bHLH Family Introduction

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment.

This family is defined by the bHLH signature domain, which consists of 60 amino acids with two functionally distinct regions. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that the interaction between the HLH regions of two separate polypeptides leads to the formation of homodimers and/or heterodimers and that the basic region of each partner binds to half of the DNA recognition sequence. Some bHLH proteins form homodimers or restrict their heterodimerization activity to closely related members of the family. On the other hand, some can form heterodimers with one or several different partners.

The core DNA sequence motif recognized by the bHLH proteins is a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'). There are different types of E-boxes, depending on the identity of the two central bases. One of the most common is the palindromic G-box (5'-CACGTG-3'). Certain conserved amino acids within the basic region of the protein provide recognition of the core consensus site, whereas other residues in the domain dictate specificity for a given type of E-box . In addition, flanking nucleotides outside of the hexanucleotide core have been shown to play a role in binding specificity, and there is evidence that a loop residue in the protein plays a role in DNA binding through elements that lie outside of the core recognition sequence.

Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH.
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
Plant Cell. 2003 Aug;15(8):1749-70
PMID: 12897250