PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Elaeis guineensis
bHLH Family
Species TF ID Description
XP_010904562.1bHLH family protein
XP_010904653.1bHLH family protein
XP_010904654.1bHLH family protein
XP_010904655.1bHLH family protein
XP_010904656.1bHLH family protein
XP_010904657.1bHLH family protein
XP_010904658.1bHLH family protein
XP_010904659.1bHLH family protein
XP_010904660.1bHLH family protein
XP_010904661.1bHLH family protein
XP_010904865.1bHLH family protein
XP_010905158.1bHLH family protein
XP_010905214.1bHLH family protein
XP_010905648.1bHLH family protein
XP_010906805.1bHLH family protein
XP_010906815.1bHLH family protein
XP_010906881.1bHLH family protein
XP_010906882.1bHLH family protein
XP_010906883.1bHLH family protein
XP_010906884.1bHLH family protein
XP_010907240.1bHLH family protein
XP_010907388.1bHLH family protein
XP_010908515.1bHLH family protein
XP_010908560.1bHLH family protein
XP_010908747.1bHLH family protein
XP_010909228.1bHLH family protein
XP_010909259.1bHLH family protein
XP_010909460.1bHLH family protein
XP_010909816.1bHLH family protein
XP_010909853.1bHLH family protein
XP_010909854.1bHLH family protein
XP_010909862.1bHLH family protein
XP_010910115.1bHLH family protein
XP_010910261.1bHLH family protein
XP_010910262.1bHLH family protein
XP_010910263.1bHLH family protein
XP_010910264.1bHLH family protein
XP_010910288.1bHLH family protein
XP_010910344.1bHLH family protein
XP_010910398.1bHLH family protein
XP_010910582.1bHLH family protein
XP_010911272.1bHLH family protein
XP_010911550.1bHLH family protein
XP_010911852.1bHLH family protein
XP_010912110.1bHLH family protein
XP_010912147.1bHLH family protein
XP_010912385.1bHLH family protein
XP_010912788.1bHLH family protein
XP_010912789.1bHLH family protein
XP_010912827.1bHLH family protein
XP_010913102.1bHLH family protein
XP_010913103.1bHLH family protein
XP_010913124.1bHLH family protein
XP_010913729.1bHLH family protein
XP_010913730.1bHLH family protein
XP_010913936.1bHLH family protein
XP_010913937.1bHLH family protein
XP_010913938.1bHLH family protein
XP_010914796.1bHLH family protein
XP_010914797.1bHLH family protein
XP_010915430.1bHLH family protein
XP_010915530.1bHLH family protein
XP_010915628.1bHLH family protein
XP_010915684.1bHLH family protein
XP_010915876.1bHLH family protein
XP_010915877.1bHLH family protein
XP_010916065.1bHLH family protein
XP_010916075.1bHLH family protein
XP_010916400.1bHLH family protein
XP_010916401.1bHLH family protein
XP_010916459.1bHLH family protein
XP_010916461.1bHLH family protein
XP_010916462.1bHLH family protein
XP_010916463.1bHLH family protein
XP_010916515.1bHLH family protein
XP_010916601.1bHLH family protein
XP_010916699.1bHLH family protein
XP_010916730.1bHLH family protein
XP_010917014.1bHLH family protein
XP_010917019.1bHLH family protein
XP_010917028.1bHLH family protein
XP_010917385.1bHLH family protein
XP_010918188.1bHLH family protein
XP_010918201.1bHLH family protein
XP_010918535.1bHLH family protein
XP_010919038.1bHLH family protein
XP_010919574.1bHLH family protein
XP_010919575.1bHLH family protein
XP_010919940.1bHLH family protein
XP_010919958.1bHLH family protein
XP_010920215.1bHLH family protein
XP_010920705.1bHLH family protein
XP_010920800.1bHLH family protein
XP_010922068.1bHLH family protein
XP_010922993.1bHLH family protein
XP_010922997.1bHLH family protein
XP_010923316.1bHLH family protein
XP_010923317.1bHLH family protein
XP_010923319.1bHLH family protein
XP_010923470.1bHLH family protein
XP_010923471.1bHLH family protein
XP_010923485.1bHLH family protein
XP_010923486.1bHLH family protein
XP_010923988.1bHLH family protein
XP_010924017.1bHLH family protein
XP_010924573.1bHLH family protein
XP_010924915.1bHLH family protein
XP_010924964.1bHLH family protein
XP_010925429.1bHLH family protein
XP_010925444.1bHLH family protein
XP_010925568.1bHLH family protein
XP_010925897.1bHLH family protein
XP_010925976.1bHLH family protein
XP_010926028.1bHLH family protein
XP_010926221.1bHLH family protein
XP_010926342.1bHLH family protein
XP_010926474.1bHLH family protein
XP_010926531.1bHLH family protein
XP_010926541.1bHLH family protein
XP_010926543.1bHLH family protein
XP_010926677.1bHLH family protein
XP_010927034.1bHLH family protein
XP_010927251.1bHLH family protein
XP_010927432.1bHLH family protein
XP_010927433.1bHLH family protein
XP_010927803.1bHLH family protein
XP_010927987.1bHLH family protein
XP_010928118.1bHLH family protein
XP_010928471.1bHLH family protein
XP_010928474.1bHLH family protein
XP_010928675.1bHLH family protein
XP_010928851.1bHLH family protein
XP_010928852.1bHLH family protein
XP_010928971.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929067.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929068.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929069.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929070.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929074.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929149.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929150.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929340.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929341.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929342.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929644.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929645.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929663.1bHLH family protein
XP_010929791.1bHLH family protein
XP_010930149.1bHLH family protein
XP_010930150.1bHLH family protein
XP_010930934.1bHLH family protein
XP_010931062.1bHLH family protein
XP_010931430.1bHLH family protein
XP_010931526.1bHLH family protein
XP_010931879.1bHLH family protein
XP_010931955.1bHLH family protein
XP_010932049.1bHLH family protein
XP_010932342.1bHLH family protein
XP_010932344.1bHLH family protein
XP_010932345.1bHLH family protein
XP_010932880.1bHLH family protein
XP_010933462.1bHLH family protein
XP_010934047.1bHLH family protein
XP_010934055.1bHLH family protein
XP_010934113.1bHLH family protein
XP_010934137.1bHLH family protein
XP_010934164.1bHLH family protein
XP_010935028.1bHLH family protein
XP_010935191.1bHLH family protein
XP_010935491.1bHLH family protein
XP_010935518.1bHLH family protein
XP_010936084.1bHLH family protein
XP_010936085.1bHLH family protein
XP_010936096.1bHLH family protein
XP_010936103.1bHLH family protein
XP_010936187.1bHLH family protein
XP_010936243.1bHLH family protein
XP_010936244.1bHLH family protein
XP_010936245.1bHLH family protein
XP_010936678.1bHLH family protein
XP_010936695.1bHLH family protein
XP_010936746.1bHLH family protein
XP_010936826.1bHLH family protein
XP_010937071.1bHLH family protein
XP_010937075.1bHLH family protein
XP_010937082.1bHLH family protein
XP_010937084.1bHLH family protein
XP_010937538.1bHLH family protein
XP_010937539.1bHLH family protein
XP_010937540.1bHLH family protein
XP_010938283.1bHLH family protein
XP_010938284.1bHLH family protein
XP_010938807.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939305.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939306.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939350.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939351.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939352.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939353.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939354.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939355.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939407.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939468.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939524.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939525.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939530.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939543.1bHLH family protein
XP_010939706.1bHLH family protein
XP_010940038.1bHLH family protein
XP_010940086.1bHLH family protein
XP_010940117.1bHLH family protein
XP_010940203.1bHLH family protein
XP_010940314.1bHLH family protein
XP_010940315.1bHLH family protein
XP_010940774.1bHLH family protein
XP_010940945.1bHLH family protein
XP_010941241.1bHLH family protein
XP_010941334.1bHLH family protein
XP_010941362.1bHLH family protein
XP_010941465.1bHLH family protein
XP_010941466.1bHLH family protein
XP_010942051.1bHLH family protein
XP_010942107.1bHLH family protein
XP_010942243.1bHLH family protein
XP_010942244.1bHLH family protein
XP_010942264.1bHLH family protein
XP_010942265.1bHLH family protein
XP_010942629.1bHLH family protein
XP_010942676.1bHLH family protein
XP_010942838.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943093.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943199.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943315.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943316.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943317.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943318.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943319.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943320.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943321.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943322.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943352.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943353.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943354.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943487.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943488.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943520.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943590.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943594.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943830.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943836.1bHLH family protein
XP_010943849.1bHLH family protein
bHLH Family Introduction

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment.

This family is defined by the bHLH signature domain, which consists of 60 amino acids with two functionally distinct regions. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that the interaction between the HLH regions of two separate polypeptides leads to the formation of homodimers and/or heterodimers and that the basic region of each partner binds to half of the DNA recognition sequence. Some bHLH proteins form homodimers or restrict their heterodimerization activity to closely related members of the family. On the other hand, some can form heterodimers with one or several different partners.

The core DNA sequence motif recognized by the bHLH proteins is a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'). There are different types of E-boxes, depending on the identity of the two central bases. One of the most common is the palindromic G-box (5'-CACGTG-3'). Certain conserved amino acids within the basic region of the protein provide recognition of the core consensus site, whereas other residues in the domain dictate specificity for a given type of E-box . In addition, flanking nucleotides outside of the hexanucleotide core have been shown to play a role in binding specificity, and there is evidence that a loop residue in the protein plays a role in DNA binding through elements that lie outside of the core recognition sequence.

Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH.
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
Plant Cell. 2003 Aug;15(8):1749-70
PMID: 12897250