PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Dianthus caryophyllus
bHLH Family
Species TF ID Description
Dca10730.1bHLH family protein
Dca11187.1bHLH family protein
Dca11608.1bHLH family protein
Dca11875.1bHLH family protein
Dca11931.1bHLH family protein
Dca12352.1bHLH family protein
Dca12446.1bHLH family protein
Dca12805.1bHLH family protein
Dca12933.1bHLH family protein
Dca13450.1bHLH family protein
Dca14842.1bHLH family protein
Dca14902.1bHLH family protein
Dca16138.1bHLH family protein
Dca16243.1bHLH family protein
Dca17075.1bHLH family protein
Dca18529.1bHLH family protein
Dca19104.1bHLH family protein
Dca19214.1bHLH family protein
Dca20289.1bHLH family protein
Dca20297.1bHLH family protein
Dca20382.1bHLH family protein
Dca20405.1bHLH family protein
Dca20781.1bHLH family protein
Dca20882.1bHLH family protein
Dca21013.1bHLH family protein
Dca21302.1bHLH family protein
Dca22515.1bHLH family protein
Dca23028.1bHLH family protein
Dca23039.1bHLH family protein
Dca23373.1bHLH family protein
Dca23634.1bHLH family protein
Dca24976.1bHLH family protein
Dca25035.1bHLH family protein
Dca25209.1bHLH family protein
Dca25825.1bHLH family protein
Dca2714.1bHLH family protein
Dca27305.1bHLH family protein
Dca27554.1bHLH family protein
Dca27723.1bHLH family protein
Dca28590.1bHLH family protein
Dca28910.1bHLH family protein
Dca2947.1bHLH family protein
Dca29754.1bHLH family protein
Dca29816.1bHLH family protein
Dca30120.1bHLH family protein
Dca30355.1bHLH family protein
Dca31716.1bHLH family protein
Dca31798.1bHLH family protein
Dca31799.1bHLH family protein
Dca32657.1bHLH family protein
Dca32882.1bHLH family protein
Dca33329.1bHLH family protein
Dca3378.1bHLH family protein
Dca33891.1bHLH family protein
Dca34104.1bHLH family protein
Dca34208.1bHLH family protein
Dca34540.1bHLH family protein
Dca34782.1bHLH family protein
Dca35481.1bHLH family protein
Dca37237.1bHLH family protein
Dca37358.1bHLH family protein
Dca37369.1bHLH family protein
Dca37733.1bHLH family protein
Dca38314.1bHLH family protein
Dca38761.1bHLH family protein
Dca38952.1bHLH family protein
Dca39128.1bHLH family protein
Dca39953.1bHLH family protein
Dca40177.1bHLH family protein
Dca40942.1bHLH family protein
Dca41186.1bHLH family protein
Dca41273.1bHLH family protein
Dca41449.1bHLH family protein
Dca41602.1bHLH family protein
Dca42455.1bHLH family protein
Dca42761.1bHLH family protein
Dca42872.1bHLH family protein
Dca43573.1bHLH family protein
Dca43863.1bHLH family protein
Dca44232.1bHLH family protein
Dca45627.1bHLH family protein
Dca46602.1bHLH family protein
Dca47170.1bHLH family protein
Dca48071.1bHLH family protein
Dca48440.1bHLH family protein
Dca49550.1bHLH family protein
Dca50010.1bHLH family protein
Dca50832.1bHLH family protein
Dca51333.1bHLH family protein
Dca51541.1bHLH family protein
Dca5194.1bHLH family protein
Dca52144.1bHLH family protein
Dca5230.1bHLH family protein
Dca52557.1bHLH family protein
Dca53408.1bHLH family protein
Dca53495.1bHLH family protein
Dca53616.1bHLH family protein
Dca53970.1bHLH family protein
Dca53994.1bHLH family protein
Dca54007.1bHLH family protein
Dca54749.1bHLH family protein
Dca549.1bHLH family protein
Dca56086.1bHLH family protein
Dca56430.1bHLH family protein
Dca56491.1bHLH family protein
Dca57170.1bHLH family protein
Dca57564.1bHLH family protein
Dca57568.1bHLH family protein
Dca5787.1bHLH family protein
Dca58531.1bHLH family protein
Dca5911.1bHLH family protein
Dca59516.1bHLH family protein
Dca60037.1bHLH family protein
Dca60359.1bHLH family protein
Dca60996.1bHLH family protein
Dca61060.1bHLH family protein
Dca61174.1bHLH family protein
Dca61332.1bHLH family protein
Dca6149.1bHLH family protein
Dca6150.1bHLH family protein
Dca61547.1bHLH family protein
Dca61716.1bHLH family protein
Dca62384.1bHLH family protein
Dca6241.1bHLH family protein
Dca7083.1bHLH family protein
Dca7419.1bHLH family protein
Dca9787.1bHLH family protein
Dca9875.1bHLH family protein
bHLH Family Introduction

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment.

This family is defined by the bHLH signature domain, which consists of 60 amino acids with two functionally distinct regions. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that the interaction between the HLH regions of two separate polypeptides leads to the formation of homodimers and/or heterodimers and that the basic region of each partner binds to half of the DNA recognition sequence. Some bHLH proteins form homodimers or restrict their heterodimerization activity to closely related members of the family. On the other hand, some can form heterodimers with one or several different partners.

The core DNA sequence motif recognized by the bHLH proteins is a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'). There are different types of E-boxes, depending on the identity of the two central bases. One of the most common is the palindromic G-box (5'-CACGTG-3'). Certain conserved amino acids within the basic region of the protein provide recognition of the core consensus site, whereas other residues in the domain dictate specificity for a given type of E-box . In addition, flanking nucleotides outside of the hexanucleotide core have been shown to play a role in binding specificity, and there is evidence that a loop residue in the protein plays a role in DNA binding through elements that lie outside of the core recognition sequence.

Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH.
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
Plant Cell. 2003 Aug;15(8):1749-70
PMID: 12897250