PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Beta vulgaris
bHLH Family
Species TF ID Description
Bv_004330_qxaa.t1bHLH family protein
Bv_005810_knjd.t1bHLH family protein
Bv_007910_uwzj.t1bHLH family protein
Bv_007910_uwzj.t2bHLH family protein
Bv_007920_ifhw.t1bHLH family protein
Bv_008610_rmtz.t1bHLH family protein
Bv_011800_xokj.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_001500_zhap.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_001500_zhap.t2bHLH family protein
Bv1_002090_gcco.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_002400_iagh.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_002900_doao.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_007010_hamj.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_008320_qyiu.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_014620_pnwp.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_015220_dofr.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_015230_mzro.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_015850_kant.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_015900_ycdz.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_016750_mron.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_018470_kcda.t1bHLH family protein
Bv1_018470_kcda.t2bHLH family protein
Bv1_021850_tdax.t1bHLH family protein
Bv2_027790_rdja.t1bHLH family protein
Bv2_028240_okmj.t1bHLH family protein
Bv2_037340_ewqy.t1bHLH family protein
Bv2_037340_ewqy.t2bHLH family protein
Bv2_046530_kcci.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_048680_hryd.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_048690_zurc.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_048700_sktd.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_048700_sktd.t2bHLH family protein
Bv3_048710_ekeq.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_049330_hurx.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_052480_tozd.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_056380_ameu.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_058480_taej.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_060840_gszt.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_060900_tcwq.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_062800_sfct.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_062830_mhkt.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_063120_phgd.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_065070_ixyi.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_065930_qfap.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_067340_aggh.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_067350_cdzq.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_067360_mfpk.t1bHLH family protein
Bv3_069100_rxsx.t1bHLH family protein
Bv4_072220_zfoe.t1bHLH family protein
Bv4_079320_gsmr.t1bHLH family protein
Bv4_079320_gsmr.t2bHLH family protein
Bv4_081860_gthj.t1bHLH family protein
Bv4_091500_eukp.t3bHLH family protein
Bv4_092190_fzon.t1bHLH family protein
Bv4_092590_cwni.t1bHLH family protein
Bv4_092590_cwni.t2bHLH family protein
Bv4_092590_cwni.t3bHLH family protein
Bv4_094560_frca.t1bHLH family protein
Bv4_096500_rtgn.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_101510_hwwf.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_104050_pcui.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_104430_syky.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_105880_nrfj.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_110950_cnxp.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_113160_mzap.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_113160_mzap.t2bHLH family protein
Bv5_113380_euwo.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_113620_mtgp.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_113990_ahet.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_115830_yjii.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_116890_qdme.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_120270_qmkm.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_120720_czkq.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_120730_wjao.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_122120_oezy.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_125090_iorn.t1bHLH family protein
Bv5_125640_rrpy.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_129340_cuyh.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_130620_tsza.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_132940_sniz.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_133620_xjip.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_139990_gfdg.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_140160_fnct.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_140160_fnct.t2bHLH family protein
Bv6_140640_cskj.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_141380_zdcq.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_141490_ncmt.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_142380_juif.t2bHLH family protein
Bv6_143450_jkhh.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_148810_gqfm.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_149840_tdcj.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_149960_rkdn.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_151970_gufi.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_152990_hqjn.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_153010_styz.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_153030_uwjw.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_153040_dzcs.t1bHLH family protein
Bv6_155050_yefe.t1bHLH family protein
Bv7_163050_reum.t1bHLH family protein
Bv7_167440_jfxh.t1bHLH family protein
Bv7_168260_jzca.t1bHLH family protein
Bv7_170040_shyp.t1bHLH family protein
Bv8_181760_mqsr.t1bHLH family protein
Bv8_189700_tntc.t1bHLH family protein
Bv8_189710_kyop.t1bHLH family protein
Bv8_189710_kyop.t2bHLH family protein
Bv8_196130_qeeq.t1bHLH family protein
Bv8_196840_quuj.t1bHLH family protein
Bv8_199110_cuct.t1bHLH family protein
Bv8_201610_mjwh.t1bHLH family protein
Bv9_205910_kzzy.t1bHLH family protein
Bv9_207540_dxfc.t1bHLH family protein
Bv9_211810_xraf.t1bHLH family protein
Bv9_213890_aigt.t1bHLH family protein
Bv9_213890_aigt.t2bHLH family protein
Bv9_214630_fnpa.t1bHLH family protein
Bv9_216190_tegt.t1bHLH family protein
Bv9_217290_hqxy.t1bHLH family protein
Bv9_221290_hwtg.t1bHLH family protein
Bv9_222310_qpjr.t1bHLH family protein
Bv9_223670_usns.t1bHLH family protein
bHLH Family Introduction

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment.

This family is defined by the bHLH signature domain, which consists of 60 amino acids with two functionally distinct regions. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that the interaction between the HLH regions of two separate polypeptides leads to the formation of homodimers and/or heterodimers and that the basic region of each partner binds to half of the DNA recognition sequence. Some bHLH proteins form homodimers or restrict their heterodimerization activity to closely related members of the family. On the other hand, some can form heterodimers with one or several different partners.

The core DNA sequence motif recognized by the bHLH proteins is a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'). There are different types of E-boxes, depending on the identity of the two central bases. One of the most common is the palindromic G-box (5'-CACGTG-3'). Certain conserved amino acids within the basic region of the protein provide recognition of the core consensus site, whereas other residues in the domain dictate specificity for a given type of E-box . In addition, flanking nucleotides outside of the hexanucleotide core have been shown to play a role in binding specificity, and there is evidence that a loop residue in the protein plays a role in DNA binding through elements that lie outside of the core recognition sequence.

Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH.
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
Plant Cell. 2003 Aug;15(8):1749-70
PMID: 12897250