PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Beta vulgaris
Species TF ID Description
Bv1_006280_gdiw.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv1_007680_jyqa.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv1_010140_fqsf.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv1_010150_oexy.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv1_012590_kwxx.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv1_012590_kwxx.t2MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv1_012640_hnhs.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv1_019790_iszi.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv1_019810_cgkm.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv2_028090_josc.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv2_028090_josc.t2MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv2_028090_josc.t3MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv2_028880_mpsx.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv2_028880_mpsx.t2MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv3_051960_ggyu.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv3_051960_ggyu.t2MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv3_061680_hycw.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv5_101250_scro.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv5_113460_zztx.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv5_113480_aoik.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv6_129710_qrxi.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv6_133680_nuri.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv6_135530_srzn.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv6_139710_fhny.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv6_139720_hfgn.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv6_150520_ksif.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv6_150520_ksif.t2MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv6_150530_jqqr.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv6_150530_jqqr.t2MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv6_150530_jqqr.t3MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv8_188310_mhzu.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv8_188310_mhzu.t2MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv9_214370_scjj.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv9_221550_mryh.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv9_221550_mryh.t2MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv9_221980_hehi.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
Bv9_222000_heoc.t1MIKC_MADS family protein
MIKC_MADS (MIKC-type MADS) Family Introduction

The best studied plant MADS-box transcription factors are those involved in floral organ identity determination. Analysis of homeotic floral mutants resulted in the formulation of a genetic model, named the ABC model, that explains how the combined functions of three classes of genes (A, B, and C) determine the identity of the four flower organs (reviewed by Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991). Arabidopsis has two A-class genes (AP1 and AP2 [Bowman et al., 1989]), two B-class genes (PI and AP3), and a single C-class gene (AG), of which only AP2 is not a MADS-box gene. Recently, it was shown that the Arabidopsis B- and C-function genes, which control petal, stamen, and carpel development, are functionally dependent on three highly similar MADS-box genes, SEP1, SEP2, and SEP3 (Pelaz et al., 2000). Interestingly, only when mutant knockout alleles of the three SEP genes were combined in a triple sep1 sep2 sep3 mutant was loss of petal, stamen, and carpel identity observed, resulting in a flower composed of only sepals. This example shows that redundancy occurs in the MADS-box gene family, which complicates reverse genetic strategies for gene function analysis. The SHP genes provide another example of MADS-box gene redundancy. shp1 and shp2 single mutants do not exhibit any phenotypic effect, whereas in the double mutant, development of the dehiscence zone is disturbed in the fruit, resulting in a failure to release seeds (Liljegren et al., 2000)[1].

It has been proposed that there are at least 2 lineages (type I and type II) of MADS-box genes in plants, animals, and fungi. Most of the well-studied plant genes are type II genes and have three more domains than type I genes from the N to the C terminus of the protein:intervening (I) domain (~30 codons), keratin-lik e coiled-coil (K) domain (~70 codons), and Cterminal (C) domain (variable length). These genes are called the MIKC-type and are specific to plants[2].

The MADS-box is a DNA binding domain of 58 amino acids that binds DNA at consensus recognition sequences known as CArG boxes [CC(A/T)6GG] (Hayes et al., 1988; Riechmann et al., 1996b). The interaction with DNA has been studied in detail for the human and yeast MADS-box proteins thanks to the resolved crystal structures (Pellegrini et al., 1995; Santelli and Richmond, 2000). The I domain is less conserved and contributes to the specification of dimerization. The K domain is characterized by a coiled-coil structure, which facilitates the dimerization of MADS-box proteins (Davies et al., 1996; Fan et al., 1997). The C domain is the least conserved domain; in some cases, it has been shown to contain a transactivation domain or to contribute to the formation of multimeric MADS-box protein complexes (Egea-Cortines et al., 1999; Honma and Goto, 2001)[1].

1.Parenicova L, de Folter S, Kieffer M, Horner DS, Favalli C, Busscher J, Cook HE, Ingram RM, Kater MM, Davies B, Angenent GC, Colombo L.
Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
Plant Cell. 2003 Jul;15(7):1538-51.
PMID: 12837945
2.Nam J, dePamphilis CW, Ma H, Nei M.
Antiquity and evolution of the MADS-box gene family controlling flower development in plants.
Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Sep;20(9):1435-47. Epub 2003 May 30.
PMID: 12777513