PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Azadirachta indica
bHLH Family
Species TF ID Description
Neem_10103_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_10334_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_10371_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_10397_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_10415_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_10520_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_10533_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_1055_f_6bHLH family protein
Neem_10696_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_10840_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_10867_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_10870_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_10870_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_10990_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_10_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_11056_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_1109_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_11185_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_11284_f_4bHLH family protein
Neem_11355_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_11594_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_11596_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_11684_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_11905_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_12053_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_12129_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_1256_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_1258_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_13514_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_14212_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_14357_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_14716_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_1471_f_5bHLH family protein
Neem_1501_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_15185_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_1536_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_1537_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_15620_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_15703_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_15704_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_15734_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_16026_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_16119_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_1618_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_1618_f_8bHLH family protein
Neem_1619_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_16938_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_17585_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_17990_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_1822_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_18362_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_1853_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_18809_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_19110_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_19429_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_19431_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_1962_f_7bHLH family protein
Neem_19871_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_19871_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_20066_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_20246_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_20823_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_21100_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_21152_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_21581_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_21967_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_22220_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_2230_f_12bHLH family protein
Neem_22535_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_22701_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_22734_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_22793_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_23242_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_23313_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_23646_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_23857_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_24188_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_2420_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_24331_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_24454_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_24648_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_24780_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_24832_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_25112_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_25137_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_25444_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_2601_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_26037_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_26629_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_26692_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_26782_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_2732_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_27763_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_27974_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_28035_f_4bHLH family protein
Neem_28113_f_6bHLH family protein
Neem_2814_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_28203_f_4bHLH family protein
Neem_28893_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_29003_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_29099_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_29679_a_1bHLH family protein
Neem_29939_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_3108_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_31406_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_31659_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_31967_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_32400_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_32876_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_3319_f_4bHLH family protein
Neem_33243_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_3378_f_11bHLH family protein
Neem_34052_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_34297_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_34678_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_34745_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_34838_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_3484_f_4bHLH family protein
Neem_34870_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_34932_a_1bHLH family protein
Neem_35085_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_35293_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_35587_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_35590_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_35989_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_3598_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_36020_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_3605_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_36093_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_360_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_36654_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_36812_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_36839_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_36879_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_3715_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_37598_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_3863_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_38851_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_38_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_39244_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_39391_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_39485_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_39642_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_39671_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_4000_f_6bHLH family protein
Neem_40269_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_40430_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_40557_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_4117_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_41565_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_42301_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_42650_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_4299_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_4299_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_4299_f_4bHLH family protein
Neem_4507_f_4bHLH family protein
Neem_4737_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_4779_f_10bHLH family protein
Neem_5076_f_5bHLH family protein
Neem_5117_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_5184_f_4bHLH family protein
Neem_5403_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_541_f_9bHLH family protein
Neem_5599_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_5604_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_5646_f_8bHLH family protein
Neem_5886_f_4bHLH family protein
Neem_5892_f_5bHLH family protein
Neem_6238_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_6251_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_6269_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_6384_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_6387_f_7bHLH family protein
Neem_6391_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_652_f_6bHLH family protein
Neem_6557_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_6619_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_6674_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_6855_f_10bHLH family protein
Neem_6969_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_700_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_7148_f_6bHLH family protein
Neem_7190_f_4bHLH family protein
Neem_720_f_4bHLH family protein
Neem_7365_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_7365_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_7475_f_5bHLH family protein
Neem_7476_f_8bHLH family protein
Neem_7573_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_7586_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_7883_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_796_f_4bHLH family protein
Neem_80_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_8195_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_848_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_848_f_8bHLH family protein
Neem_8508_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_859_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_8767_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_8798_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_90_f_3bHLH family protein
Neem_9136_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_9295_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_9469_f_2bHLH family protein
Neem_9477_f_4bHLH family protein
Neem_9557_f_1bHLH family protein
Neem_9783_f_4bHLH family protein
bHLH Family Introduction

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment.

This family is defined by the bHLH signature domain, which consists of 60 amino acids with two functionally distinct regions. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that the interaction between the HLH regions of two separate polypeptides leads to the formation of homodimers and/or heterodimers and that the basic region of each partner binds to half of the DNA recognition sequence. Some bHLH proteins form homodimers or restrict their heterodimerization activity to closely related members of the family. On the other hand, some can form heterodimers with one or several different partners.

The core DNA sequence motif recognized by the bHLH proteins is a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'). There are different types of E-boxes, depending on the identity of the two central bases. One of the most common is the palindromic G-box (5'-CACGTG-3'). Certain conserved amino acids within the basic region of the protein provide recognition of the core consensus site, whereas other residues in the domain dictate specificity for a given type of E-box . In addition, flanking nucleotides outside of the hexanucleotide core have been shown to play a role in binding specificity, and there is evidence that a loop residue in the protein plays a role in DNA binding through elements that lie outside of the core recognition sequence.

Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH.
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
Plant Cell. 2003 Aug;15(8):1749-70
PMID: 12897250