PlantTFDB
Plant Transcription Factor Database
v4.0
Previous version: v1.0, v2.0, v3.0
Aquilegia coerulea
bHLH Family
Species TF ID Description
Aqcoe0919s0001.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G024700.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G030200.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G176800.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G176800.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G176800.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G176800.4.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G176800.5.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G287600.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G367400.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G368600.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G372700.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G372800.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G410100.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G411400.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G436300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G436500.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G436500.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G436500.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G436500.4.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe1G436500.5.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G040100.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G040200.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G048900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G157700.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G157700.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G157700.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G157700.4.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G157700.5.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G157700.6.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G178300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G212000.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G241000.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G241000.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G290700.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G311100.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G332300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G332300.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G332800.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G335600.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G393900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G399200.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G399200.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G415100.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G425400.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G425900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G435000.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G435000.4.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G435000.5.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe2G435000.6.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G016900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G034500.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G034500.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G034800.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G068100.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G068100.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G070300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G070300.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G070300.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G084500.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G085300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G118500.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G122900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G122900.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G122900.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G183200.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G183200.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G212300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G217600.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G223800.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G223800.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G223800.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G233700.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G283800.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G283900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G315800.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G315800.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G315800.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G333000.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G334900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G378400.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G382100.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G382100.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G395700.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G427100.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe3G427100.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe4G062200.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe4G062200.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe4G246200.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe4G246200.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe4G268900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe4G268900.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe4G283600.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G028500.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G028500.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G038300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G042200.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G042200.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G100400.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G139300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G147300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G147300.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G147500.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G150900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G160500.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G160500.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G160500.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G188900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G188900.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G237900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G238000.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G239900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G269000.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G338900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G340300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G340300.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G340300.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G413500.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G413500.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G413500.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G421600.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G421800.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G450000.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe5G469700.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G003100.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G064400.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G064400.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G064600.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G066900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G066900.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G075100.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G096700.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G096700.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G122000.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G127300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G127300.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G127300.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G127300.4.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G127300.7.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G127300.8.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G245400.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G259000.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G259000.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G282100.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G285000.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G285100.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G303600.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe6G303600.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G007900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G033100.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G033100.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G033100.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G055800.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G142700.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G147400.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G147500.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G154500.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G154500.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G154500.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G155000.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G155200.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G156100.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G156100.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G156100.3.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G156300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G163200.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G163200.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G166200.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G191300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G191500.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G303300.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G314200.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G398900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G421900.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G424700.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G424700.2.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G440400.1.pbHLH family protein
Aqcoe7G440400.2.pbHLH family protein
bHLH Family Introduction

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment.

This family is defined by the bHLH signature domain, which consists of 60 amino acids with two functionally distinct regions. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that the interaction between the HLH regions of two separate polypeptides leads to the formation of homodimers and/or heterodimers and that the basic region of each partner binds to half of the DNA recognition sequence. Some bHLH proteins form homodimers or restrict their heterodimerization activity to closely related members of the family. On the other hand, some can form heterodimers with one or several different partners.

The core DNA sequence motif recognized by the bHLH proteins is a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'). There are different types of E-boxes, depending on the identity of the two central bases. One of the most common is the palindromic G-box (5'-CACGTG-3'). Certain conserved amino acids within the basic region of the protein provide recognition of the core consensus site, whereas other residues in the domain dictate specificity for a given type of E-box . In addition, flanking nucleotides outside of the hexanucleotide core have been shown to play a role in binding specificity, and there is evidence that a loop residue in the protein plays a role in DNA binding through elements that lie outside of the core recognition sequence.

Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH.
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
Plant Cell. 2003 Aug;15(8):1749-70
PMID: 12897250